Monday, 6 September 2010

The Borderer (Jubilee Edition)

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A HISTORY OF UMTALI GIRLS' AND BOYS' HIGH SCHOOLS
1896 – 1968

Contents: Page
Foreword: 3
Editorial: 4
Research Team: 5
The Schools' Genesis :6
Bursting Seams: 20
Consolidation:: 31
Quiet Progress: 47
The War Years: 53
Towards Separation : 58
The Girls Go On Alone: 65
Tiger Kloof: 70
The Sixties: 82
References and Acknowledgments: 87
Appendices: 88

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FOREWARD

MINISTER OF LANDS
SALISBURY
April, 1969

It was a very great pleasure and honour to be asked to write the Foreword to this magazine on the occasion of our Diamond Jubilee.

Although it was many years ago that I was a pupil at the Umtali High School, I have always tried to maintain links with the school and keep up old friendships. Indeed, I would say that this is almost a tradition amongst old boys and I believe that the history of our two schools is an important part of Rhodesia's history. We have many distinguished years behind us and I feel sure that in the years' to come much will be done to enhance this fine reputation.

A word of praise is due to those people who have worked so hard to produce this magazine and also to those who have contributed articles and information—we owe them our sincere thanks. This publication will be a must in the home of every pupil past, present and future and as Old Borderers have moved to every part of the world, I am sure they would welcome a copy from friends still in Rhodesia.

To the Headmasters and Headmistresses and staff of the schools over the years, we must pay a special tribute; they have done so much for the history of our schools.

I wish this publication every success and trust that it will receive the support it so justly deserves.


PHIL VAN HEERDEN
Minister of Lands. Minister of Water Development.
Compensation House,
Salisbury.

End of Page 3

EDITORIAL

The writing of history is, at any level, a long and demanding process. In the first place, the ground work of investigation and research has to cover all possible sources of information. The secondary sources have to be read, then the primary sources collected government documents, parliamentary proceedings, newspaper reports, private letters and diaries, oral evidence, photographs and maps. Once this material is collected the second and perhaps most important, stage of the process is undertaken: that is the analysis of the nature of the information. Is it reliable? With every piece of information the historian has to check and re-check. Who was the author of the information? What is his relationship to the event being described? What qualification or authority has he for saying what he does? Has he got sufficient evidence to support his view? Is the language misleading or unfair? Has he covered all aspects of his own source material? Having then re-assured himself on the reliability of his information, the historian begins the next stage of his task, the actual writing of his own work. Here, the information sifted and analysed, the writer has to assemble his material to the best advantage of the event he describes and of its readability. The biggest problem at this stage is the personal reflection on his own reliability. The personal bias that he inevitably shows must be recognised and neutralised.

Finally, after presentation of his finished work, the historian must be prepared to defend what he says, as well as to modify his views if further evidence is brought forward. So that the ultimate version of his work is a synthesis of analysis and of criticism, a dialectic process in which all sides benefit, and a process in which all time scales have a part to play. The past, present and future.

All these facets of the historical process have been encountered by the members of the History Society engaged on this project. For nearly eighteen months, they have been going through Inspectors' Reports, B.S.A. Co. Ordinances, newspaper reports, school log books, school magazines, personal recollections and notes, photographs and maps, sifting the information and checking for its authenticity. They have encountered and combatted the bias involved in writing in the present of the past, and this publication is a fair indication of both their labour and their success.

It is not a definitive history (any historian would be a bold man who could claim that his history was the ultimate on the topic) but it is a history that will provide many with an opportunity to glimpse some aspects of the past, to follow the development of two schools, to argue over the " jfs," to relive the victories and to understand some of the present day features. And we look forward to the next synthesis, perhaps in fifteen years time, when some others will take the information here recorded, add to it the information that this will surely provoke, and add a further chapter to the development of government education in Umtali.

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RESEARCH TEAM

B. Schorr
R. Brown
S. Field
C. De Villiers
P. Brent
J. Winch
K. Jacobs
G. Newman
W. Rudd
T. Scott
C. Murray
D. Reynish
P. Lark
B. Davis
R. Thomas
M.Davidson
J. Sanderson
R. Burton
C. Heron
R. Barry

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Chapter 1

THE SCHOOLS' GENISIS 1890-1909
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Prior to the occupation of Manicaland the area had a sparse indigenous population which escaped from the constant plundering raids of the Shangaan and Matataele impis by fleetness of foot, by paying tributes to the dominating Chiefs or cowering in village fortresses on inaccessible kopjes. These people scratched a meager living from the soil. Scattered amongst this nervous native population were a few hardy Europeans who fended for themselves in the wilds.

Count Penhalonga, after whom Penhalonga is named, was an early adventurer in this region and was of great assistance to the traveller roaming around the unknown areas of P.E.A. Another adventurer was Ruben Beningfield, who was reputed to be in the Penhalonga district in 1866 and claimed to have received a mineral concession from the local chief Mutasa (this was later revoked in favour of such a grant to the B.S.A. Co.)

In the late 19th century the Portuguese exercised a rather shadowy' administration over Manicaland. This was dependent on the power of individuals such as a Portuguese prazo-holder Manuel de Sousa (Gouveia) with his large number of African retainers, who was trying to re-establish Portuguese authority in Manicaland, along with Major Paiva d'Andrada founder of the "Companhia da Mocambique."

Under the auspices of the "Companhia da Mocambique" prospectors, mainly South African and British, flowed into the area, penetrated Mutasa's territory and with his sanction began searching for gold. Many of these happy-go-lucky gold seekers were active in the Penhalonga area and there are many well known names among them: J. S. Maritz, Baron de Rezende, G. B. Dunbar Moodie. While men such as Halliday,' Harrington and Luther do not enjoy the same fame they nevertheless took part in the exploration of Manicaland thus opening it up for possible settlement.

When the Pioneer Column entered the country, Rhodes desired Manicaland for its gold and as the source of a route to the coast.

Colquhoun, the Chartered Company's administrator, Selous and a police escort were despatched from the main body at Port Charter to obtain a concession from Mutasa in favour of the B.S.A. Co. This they duly achieved on the 14th September, 1890. Mutasa subsequently disclaimed his Portuguese administrative title of "Sargentomor" and he denied his dependency on the Portuguese. Colquhoun then made his way to the capital, Fort Salisbury, from where he sent Captain Forbes with a small number of troopers back to Mutasa's Kraal. On his arrival there Forbes discovered that the Portuguese led by de Rezende, d'Andrada and Gouveia were attempting to reaffirm Portuguese claims on Mutasa. Forbes promptly stormed the kraal and arrested the Portuguese and then pushed on to endeavour to capture Beira and the seaport Rhodes longed to have. Unfortunately he was recalled when only 50 miles from the desired port. Forbes' high-handed action had almost created an international incident between Britain and Portugal and, consequently, the problem was solved by a temporary agreement between the two countries in November 1890. By this the Sabi River was declared to be the boundary between the two spheres of influence.

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Nevertheless, the B.Q.A. CO. hung on to Manicaland successfully defending their new possession against the Portuguese by defeating them at the Battle of the Chua River in April, 1891. By an Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of August, 1891 the permanent eastern boundary was laid down and Manicaland remained in the hands of the B.S.A. Co.

The then town of Umtali was established at the present site of Old Umtali along the Umtali River and the foundations of justice, health and commerce were laid down. By 1895 Umtali boasted of the facilities of any normal town; it had four hotels, banks, all the necessary food shops, a hospital, cemetery, government and police buildings. But it lacked a school.

According to the Census of 1895 the total population of Umtali and surrounding districts was 341; this consisted of 272 men, 33 women and 36 children all under the age of 12. The evident lack of educational facilities for the Umtali youth was a growing source of anxiety for the parents of the town. It took the advent of Miss Zillah Marion Miles in Umtali to rectify matters.

MISS MILES AND THE BEGINNING

Miss Miles (later Mrs. Dick Tulloch) accompanied by her brother arrived in Umtali in December, 1895 coming via Beira, a very arduous journey in those days. The news quickly spread through the hamlet that Miss Miles had experience as a private teacher in England and loved children; she was soon approached by parents and asked to open a small school. Miss Miles willingly accepted the task and summed the situation up by saying "everything was new and strange, but everyone was filled with great hopes for the future."

Subsequently the first school in the district was started in a meagre pole and dagga hut in March, 1896. Miss Miles aptly described the hut as being " big enough for present purposes, though it was not in the best state of preservation, a coat of white-wash inside and a little extra thatch outside made it possible." Trestles and planks, a couple of nail’s, all provided by grateful well-wishers, resulted in the manufacture of a few tables, while packing cases were supplied for chairs.

A small map, whose origin remains unknown, was attached to one of the mud walls, while a 2ft. square window was covered with a piece of calico. Outside attached to a reed, stuck in the thatch, there patriotically fluttered a small Union Jack — the school was now fully prepared and ready to receive its first robust pupils, A few text books were "collected from the dusty corners of Umtali." The first school day arrived and Miss Miles found waiting for her “a small band of a dozen pupils all eager, all expectant and some of them a wee bit scared as to the outcome of this very new experience but perhaps, had they but known it, hardly more scared than their teacher." Their new mistress " felt it to be a great undertaking to be responsible for the instilling of right principles and as much knowledge as possible into their hearts and brains."

On that premiere day the students and their solitary member of staff commenced to make "rules and regulations and formed mutual resolutions to make the school one of the best" if it did not exactly make the grade of " best" the school still had the honour to be one of the pioneers in the field of education in Rhodesia. The scholars possessed a total of 2 slates between them, the customary blackboard was lacking, and the school hours were moderately set down for 8.30 to 12.30. Exercise books for the children had to be made from trimmings left over from the Rhodesia Advertiser (better known later as The Umtali Post). This shortage of paper, however, was not uncommon. Miss Miles recounts an old pioneer lady telling her the surprise expressed by her parents in England when she sent them a letter written on a piece of old sandpaper! During the Matabele and Mashona

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Rebellions, Miss Miles recalls that, if the local chief of the Manica, Mutasa, rose, a rocket was to be fired to warm the local populace. Fortunately, though the pupils could not have considered it so, the school was situated near the laager which was only three minutes walk away —work at this particular establishment was diligently continued.

Mr. C. Hulley, one of Miss Miles' early pupils remembers her as being a very good teacher. He also related that she kept a " dunce " cap which was in reality a large girls' hat; on one occasion Mr. Hulley's brother misbehaved in class and was asked to don the "dunce" cap. Rather than face humiliation, he jumped out of the window and ran away.

Towards the end of 1897 Umtali began the move to form the railhead for the coming railway. The High Commissioner, Sir Alfred Milner, came out to review the present site in November, 1897 and while in Umtali he had an interview with Miss Miles. As a result, he promised her the usual government (then the B.S.A. Co.) grants for furniture, tables and forms, and subsidies for each individual pupil. When the new forms arrived they were highly polished and shiny; and during the playtime some of the pupils turned them into slides and gleefully slid down them, much to Miss Miles's horror.

When the school moved to the present site of Umtali, the government made available a wood and iron office, also moved from the old site. This consisted of a large school room, while a sitting room, kitchen and bedroom were furnished for Miss Miles. (This was erected as far as can, be ascertained near Kopje House which was then the hospital). At this time the approximate number of pupils was 27 whose parents paid a guinea a term as school fees.

Thus, Miss Miles by 1898 was responsible for founding the first school — our direct ancestor — and steering it to stability. Miss Miles retired gracefully from scholastic duties when she became a blushing bride in April 1898, her undoubtedly lucky groom being Mr. " Dick" Tulloch. When she later visited the school in 1938 she said: " Today when I look at the fine school buildings in Umtali, and think of the attractive school books the children have, and the modern aids to learning and the advantages of splendid men and women teachers, I recall the very humble beginnings in 1896 — 42 years ago. I am proud of our country's achievements."

Born in Forest Hill, London, May 1861, Mrs. Tulloch died a grand old lady in Bulawayo in September, 1944. The following poem which appeared anonymously in The Rhodesia Herald shortly after her death illustrates her fine character and is a fitting epitaph to a remarkable woman :—

A pioneer, in far off days she came,
When ways were rough and danger manifold, A kind and gentle heart unknown to fame Of that great {band whose deeds are never told.
A simple faith upheld her through the years Of bitter loss and endless sacrifice Her frail 'body was not built for tears For her no turning back, whate'er the price.
Her "merry laughter echoes in my mind
As round her table friends and I would meet
To hear her tell of days left far behind
When hearts were strong and did not know defeat.
Of others' faults she spoke no hasty word
Nor ever would their frailties decry.
Her noble spirit dwells with those she loved
And we are richer for her passing by."

After her departure her sister-in-law, Mrs. Player Miles took over from her and taught the children until late i898 when the American Methodist Episcopal Church opened a school which replaced that of Mrs. Miles

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THE AMERICAN METHODIST SCHOOL - THE UMTALI ACADEMY

With the evacuation of Old Umtali, Rhodes planned to turn the then vacant area into a Mission site. It was with this in mind that the Bishop of Africa for the American Methodist Episcopal Church, Mr. Joseph Hartzell came to the area to view the site. As a result of his visit the American Church and the B.S.A. Co. came to the following agreement. The Church was to receive the remaining 7 buildings and 13,000 acres of Old Umtali to establish Missionary facilities, but the offer was conditional on the establishment of a European school in Umtali to be run by the American Church. To this end the government proposed to yield 5 stands to the Church for the erection of the school and a church.

In August, 1898 a meeting of interested parties convened to discuss the question of the founding of this town school. The meeting was held in the Court House, Major Turner taking the chair; those present included a number of Umtali's leading citizens. It was agreed to use a corner of the Government buildings for the school.

In September the same year the American Methodist Episcopal Church despatched the Rev. and Mrs. Morris Ehnes to organise the forming of the school. Rev. Ehnes was to work under the auspices of the Church as Head of the new school. The Ehnes were both graduates of the Ohio Wesleyan University and duly arrived in Umtali after having travelled by sea from the United States of America.
In October another meeting was held in the Court to hear proposals put forward by the Rev. Ehnes. The missionary outlined his plans for the school. Children of five years and upwards were to be taught all the common branches of education such as arithmetic, penmanship, reading, art, geography, history and grammar. Rev. Ehnes decided that there would be a daily reading from the Bible but no other religious training. The Mission could also make provision for pupils wishing to pursue higher studies. The Church was further responsible for sending out all the school furniture and all other educational needs, including musical instruments. When the new school was finally opened on November 21st, 1898, it was recognised officially as having two names, the Umtali Public School and the Umtali Academy, with no preference shown for either one of the names. A management board with the Resident Magistrate as chairman was set up to guide the new school.

Bishop Hartzell had also reached agreement with the B.S.A. Co. in 1898 that a grant of £360 be made to the school for the year 1898 to set it on its feet. However, the expenditure of this period amounted to £452 for salaries, repairs, furniture and equipment.

The Umtali Academy was in dire need of additional funds but the B.S.A. Co. was reluctant to hand out additional grants unless the school was brought under the Education Ordinance of 1899. This Ordinance, which was the beginning of the Department of Education, stipulated that religion was to be taught during school hours, while grants were to be given as aid for the teaching of additional subjects and the government was to pay a minimum of half, if not all of the school's expenses, including teachers' wages. The school applied to be brought under this Ordinance: this application was duly sanctioned by His Honour the Administrator of Matabeleland. The Academy was now an officially aided government school. In 1900 the school further received a grant of £12 per pupil per annum; the attendance at the Academy had now reached 32 while there were 2 full time teachers on the roll.

With the establishment of the Department of Education the term and holiday system, which up till now had been haphazard, was laid down as follows:—

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Reopen: January 15th
Break Up: March 26th

Reopen: April 7th
Break Up: June 13th

Reopen: July 28th
Break Up: September 26th

Reopen: October 7th
Break Up: December 7th

The year was thus spilt into four terms while there existed a total of 111 days of vacation. As far as the length of holiday’s go- the system has remained much the same, as today's Government schools have approximately 105 days. In the same year, 1900, a scheme for school inspections was devised, and the first suggestion of a school curriculum that might have eventually led to the establishment of examinations, appeared in the Report) of the Inspector of Schools, Mr. H. E. D. Hammond. The above mentioned curriculum basically encompassed the following: reading, writing, geography, history, arithmetic and grammar. Though the hours remained from 8.30 to 12.30 the length of them was questioned. The Education Department was gradually attempting to stabilise the educational system within the colony.

Rev. Ehnes commenting on the work at the Umtali Public School in 1900 stated that he had had "considerable difficulties in arranging the school during the past period, through the delay and loss of books on the way to Umtali; the bad attendance of some of the pupils and the lack of room." New school buildings were urgently required. At this time furniture for the school was made at the Old Umtali Industrial Mission (American) and was of excellent quality. During the course of 1901 the first ever school concert was held; it was arranged by Rev. and Mrs. Ehnes and Mrs. Hugh Tulloch (Rosa St. Clair) a recent addition to the staff; it was composed of a number of songs and the portrayal of a scenic poem.

Unfortunately due to considerable illness and recurrent fever Rev. Ehnes was unable to continue with both school and church work and he left for America to recover his health. Regular sessions were suspended until a new Head arrived; the Rev. Amory Beetham arrived in July, 1901 to take over the headship of an "unpretentious school." Bishop Hartzell moreover decided that the kindergarten division was in drastic need of reform. This eventually resulted in the presence of Miss Harriet Johnstone from the 'State Normal School of New Jersey at the school, plus all the necessary kindergarten equipment and a new piano which made it possible to open two new departments namely Kindergarten and Music.

In 1901 it was announced, that the school was to vacate its present building which it had rented for £150 per annum since 1898 in favour of the desired new building that attendance and the expanding range of studies necessitated. On the 13th December, 1901 the school purchased the then uncompleted Goldfields Hotel for conversion into a new look Umtali Academy. The location of the proposed school was excellent; it stood at the corner of Second Street and 'D' Avenue and occupied stands 661 and 662. The building, a double storey, was admirably suited for school facilities, resident teachers and boarding accommodation for pupils. The average daily attendance for the past year had reached the new level of 51 pupils. With four teachers and two supplementary departments the school was opened "auspiciously." Miss Johnstone gave two regular periods each week to instruct the recently introduced subjects, vocal music, better known to many as "singing," and gymnastics. It was said of the above two topics at the time that "demand for such opportunities is no longer a question." Work for the past year, 1901, had "gone on with . . . apparent satisfaction to all concerned." The school further obtained a second piano and increased the standard of its science equipment by acquiring a chemistry and physics laboratory set, a luxury to schools in those far off days. By now the Umtali Public School was divided into three departments:

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Kindergarten, Primary and Upper while evening classes were inaugurated and had an average attendance of three.

During the course of 1901 the school had received its first official government grant, under the Education Ordinance, which amounted to the total sum of £323 8s. 6d. This was reserved for the paying of rent, teachers' half salaries, the running of the evening school and various requisites. Over and above this, another grant of £180 for the principal's salary was endorsed, while a building grant of £1,800 was also acquired, though it was never to be paid back.

Under the Rev. Beetham the school moved on handsomely, gaining full interest from the pupils as well as full attendance. As far as can be ascertained, Rev. Beetham was a most conscientious principal and went to great extremes to obtain government aid when it came to the education of children from financially poor parents. While desperately trying to secure money from the government for the above purpose, he kept the children on at the school on the grounds of hope. In one letter to the Education Department he stated "At the present there seems to be no other course open to us but to deprive the poor of the privilege of education."
Eventually in 1903 the Rev. Beetham was allowed an Indigent Children Grant worth £40 10s.plus additional grants of £12 p.a. for the poor children.

By 1901 there existed within the colony only 8 government assisted schools (of which the Umtali Academy was one) with a total of 443 pupils and 23 teachers, the average number of pupils being taught per teacher was 18.8, thus the Umtali Public School seemed well endowed with only 41 regular pupils shared between the then five teachers.

On a visit to the Academy in 1902, Mr. Duthie, a supervising inspector, later Director of Education, praised the school, the regular roll of pupils having now risen to 48. Duping this period of time what must have been the first comprehensive history of Rhodesia was published and all pupils in standard V and upwards were requested to use it. Before any set system of examinations was introduced a pupil started in kindergarten, finally leaving school after completing a year in the last form, standard VH; any marked division into a primary, junior or high school at this time was purely academic as the above were collected into a self-contained unit i.e. one school encompassed the lot. Lord Grey (Administrator of the Colony) on a visit to the Academy claimed that it was "the best equipped school in Rhodesia" and this was indeed a compliment to be cherished. By 1903 the roll reached 61. At the same time the school opened what later turned out to be a very dubious boarding establishment, a blemish, in fact, on the school's character. It was also testified that "the harmony and co-operation among all the teachers had been most gratifying and consequently conducive of good results." Mrs. H. Tulloch received special mention and was reported to be at her desk every day "doing her work as faithfully as if every child in her room were her own.

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Photo 12 A
Umtali 1895 (site of present Old Umtali), the School - a hut - can be seen in the centre of
the picture.


Photo 12 B
Mrs. Z. Tulloch outside the School.

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Photo 13 A
The Umtali Academy 1901, formerly Goldfields Hotel, and became the Government Education
Department in 1909.


Photo 13 B
The Umtali High School, 1904-1909 housed in St. John's Church.

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The existence of the two schools however did result in at least one favourable advancement, like two antagonistic children, they became competitive -the situation was further fanned by religious sectarianism. This all led to increased energy on the behalf of both schools and this resulted in increased efficiency in the Anglican Church camp of Mr. Robins. The St. Johns Public School was described a having a "distinctly ecclesiastic flavour" but no doubt this must have been solely due to its obvious connections.

The effect of a rival had served to decrease the Umtali Academy's roll, the number of pupils attending the school had dropped to 40 in 1905 while the Anglican' School had 25 scholars. With both of the schools incorporating "Public School" in their names, the government became somewhat confused and possibly due to resulting clerical depression and desperation, and to avoid any further perplexities, the government offered a quarterly grant of £20, a juicy carrot, to the obstinate new school if it agreed to the changing of its name. The St. John's Public School subsequently became known as the Umtali High and did receive its £20. The Umtali High School progressed rapidly and in August, 1906 the Administrator of Southern Rhodesia felt the government could no longer ignore the school. Consequently the school was brought under the Education Ordinance of 1902 and became the recipient of a temporary and provisional grant worth £145, additional grants of £28 per month to aid the boarding department plus £5 a month for pupil teachers. In 1906 the Umtali Public School had 49 pupils and 4 teachers, two of whom were pupil teachers. The life of these pupil teachers, to say the least, must have been strenuous, for not only did they teach during the whole of the regular school day but had to take lessons in the afternoons and then had to study for their final examinations which would ironically establish them as full time teachers. In spite of all their work the average pupil teacher had the unbelievably low salary of approximately £40 per annum.

During 1903 the colony officially adopted the South African system of education and for the first time the Matriculation Exemption Examination of the Cape University was written. Three scholars of the Umtali Public School were preparing to write the above at the end of 1906, the fee for entering this exam being £2 per scholar. Secondary examinations in Rhodesia were beginning to take shape "but despite the growing feeling of confidence reflected in subsequent (general examination) reports, many years were to elapse before Rhodesia could contemplate a measure of independence from a South African school examination system."

By 1907 the number of pupils at the Umtali Public School had jumped to 72 which included 13 boarders while there were now 5 resident teachers. The increase in boarders was due to the introduction of further financial aids to district children who lived more than 3 miles outside the town; the Rhodes Trustees and the government were to contribute a third each to pay for boarding fees, while the remaining third was to be paid by the parents concerned. It was noted at this period that the American Mission was gradually lessening its interest in the school, though Bishop Hartzell still helped the school tremendously, making money available for furniture and building repairs. Rev. Ferris who had done "real and good work" had now decided to devote all his to missionary work and in April, 1907 Mr. Robson, B.A. an experienced teacher, succeeded as the new head of the Academy. However, t was claimed that continual staff changes, to wit Rev. Ferris's departure, would only be hurtful to the school and it was hoped that the new staff would be of a permanent nature. But, alas, this was not to be,

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it was not until the arrival of Mr. Garner that any state of permanency was achieved. Mr Robson the recently installed principal earned a Salary of £250 per annum an improvement on that of Rev. Beetham while Miss Lodge a teacher of general subjects had a salary of £200 per annum an improvement on that of Rev. Beetham, per annum. These can be compared with corresponding salaries at the Umtali High School, where the Head, Mr. Robins, had the relatively low salary of £120, (even then this was an increase on his wage of 1905 the rise being due to the school coming under government control) while Mrs. Tulloch gathered a total of £240 per annum Both the Rev. Robins and Mrs. Tulloch were said to have shown keen interest in their work one of the results being the founding of a library, which had the name of the St. Nicholas Guild Library and which boasted of a collection of 270 books.

In 1907 both the Umtali High School and the Umtali Public School adopted the same educational system. One started in the Infants Department which consisted of two classes sub-standards A and B while there was a Standard O for the more advanced children, and then continued into Standard I and on to Standard VII, graduating finally to the higher grade class where the Matriculation Exemption Examination was written. In the higher grade class most of the subjects that we know to-day were taught: science, grammar, Latin, French, History, Geometry and Arithmetic being the basic subjects. Scholars of today need no longer consider their lot as far as English and Latin literature is concerned as being onerous, for even in 1907 pupils were plagued and entertained by a Shakespearian work of art King John accompanied by "Blackwoods English Prose" while Latin scholars thrived on Cicero's "Pro Archia" and Ovid's "Metamorphoses" a text book of classical mythology." The average age of the children in the Umtali Public School's Standard I was in 1907 9.8 years two years above average, while the average age in Standard III was 10.3 years. An Inspector's report of the same year claimed "a lack of discipline and tidiness" at the Umtali Public School "was evident" and "would account for inefficient work." The roots of the above problems lay in the fact that the increase in numbers at the school had been due to a large influx of Dutch children, who had had little or no educational grounding.

In October, 1907 the future and first principal of the true Umtali High School arrived to assume the Headship of the Umtali Public School. Mr. Garner B.A. (Int.) R.U.I, seemed the ideal person to ride the storms which were bound to follow the amalgamation of the Umtali High School and Umtali Public School. He was Irish, originating from Belfast and was "a good educationist but a good businessman "also. Under him the school flourished. He "improved the discipline and cleanliness of the pupils" which up till now had been of a low standard but he was requested to bear in mind that "the gentler the methods the more effective the discipline" Mr. Garner had had a most brilliant University career and a very successful history as a teacher under the Irish Educational Board. He was described as the "ablest and most successful teacher that the Irish Education Department could turn out."

AMALGAMATION AND YEAR ONE

The year 1908 commenced with additional changes being made to the educational system. The Beit Trustees were persuaded to interest themselves in the problems of assisting children from outlying districts to attend secondary schools. This was the first mention of the introduction of Beit Scholarships — which were written in Standard VII with 20 annual scholarships being offered. The standard of the examination was;-

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so arranged that successful candidates would be induced to stay at the school long enough to sit for higher examinations i.e. Matriculation. After having been put into practice in 1908 it was suggested in 1909 that a similar examination for Standard V would have equally beneficial results. This led in 1917 to the inauguration of the Junior and Senior Beit scholarship system.

Mr. Garner, recently invested head, used to teach the upper standards, which encompassed Matric and Beit scholars; however it was reported that the curriculum of the upper standards had not succeeded. The reason for this was stated to be, the failure of the pupils or the lack of emphasis to make the pupils carry out their own observations, with their own eyes, on subjects around them; nature study, object drawing, local and physical geography. Encouragement was required from the teachers in guiding the pupils in these fields. The failure in the curriculum was no doubt also due to the actual fact that both schools had an absence of a definite programme and standard of work for each class—there was no regular time table (this was introduced finally in 1909). Where the attendance figures at the Umtali High School had remained at a static 25 those at the Umtali Public School had reached 70. This only included the regular pupils and excluded those who attended the evening school which still flourished. A government grant of £1 was given to the Umtali Public School for each pupil at the evening school per term. This establishment contained a motley collection of persons from apprentices to B.S.A.P. recruits, while it was not only attended by English speaking people but also by Greeks and "Coolies." Subjects given here ranged from naturally English, Arithmetic. Bookkeeping, to writing - normally 2 x 2-hourly lessons were imparted weekly.

Nevertheless it seemed a tremendous pity to have two relatively small schools in a tiny town like Umtali rather than having one large school. Consequently in 1908 careful and thorough attention was paid to the question of amalgamation. As previously mentioned the Umtali Public School was in debt to the ruling Government, the B.S.A. Co. It had had a total of three loans, one of £1,000 and another of £1,800 both building loans and it was very far behind with the repayment of these loans, while it had not yet even performed the act of paying back anything on the borrowed £180 (Beethanrs salary loan). In August negotiations for the taking over of the Umtali Public School's building were opened between the government and the American Methodist Episcopal Church. The government set forth the following notions: if the B.S.A. Co. was to take over the school and its debt the resulting cost needed for the continuance of the school would amount to £600 per annum, which the government was willing to undertake; furthermore if it did assume responsibility for the loans it made to the Umtali Public School the American Church would only end up by having a balance against it of £31 0s. 2d. These reasonable terms no doubt hastened the American Church into agreeing that ultimately amalgamation was the best course to take. In addition to all this the Government agreed to pay for the Umtali Public School's building plus all the furniture which the Church had purchased for the schoo1. The date for amalgamation, 1909, was an extremely favourable one for the American Methodist Episcopal Church for it was the Diamond Jubilee year of the arrival of the Church's first missionary in Africa and it would be fitting for the Church to relinquish to the government its proud share of the work it had done in the early educational history of Rhodesia. The proposed amalgamation had received valuable support from the Bishop of Africa for the American Methodist Episcopal Church,

End of Page 16

Mr. Joseph Hartzell, who said in a letter to the Education Department .You know from the first I believed in Public Schools, that is, the country taking the entire responsibility. Our relations have been pheasant and good work has been done. But now with everything under your own control and more money and people, better work than ever will be accomplished." It was claimed that educationally the Umtali Public School was "in a healthy state" and the Church stated that "it is a source of considerable pleasure and satisfaction to know that we handed over to the Government an institution that was in a prosperous condition and a staff of teachers that were a distinct credit to us. " The Advisory Committee of the Umtali High School as did the public in general, expressed the desire for an early amalgamation.
Nevertheless we can be left with no shadow of a doubt that both the schools had become financial embarrassments to both Churches and therefore they willingly accepted the transaction of amalgamation, as suggested by the government which incurred the minimum financial loss for them

The public felt the need for an Advisory Committee before actual amalgamation took place. The government squashed this. The Umtali public then disagreed with a government proposal, that the Sanitary Board should elect members to the committee. The reason was, the public argued, that none of the Sanitary Board members had any children at either of the schools. The Umtali High School committee then adopted a resolution which the public were very quick to seize. It was suggested that the committee consist of three representatives from each of the schools and three government representatives. The government opposed this - the justification of the act being based on the expense involved. The final solution was eventually governmental — the proposal being that a temporary Advisory Council was to be elected by parents or guardians of the pupils. After all this wrangling the required five members were elected at a public meeting and were approved of by the Administrator of Rhodesia. The much argued over committee consisted of Dr. Harper, Messrs. English, Laing, Shonashall and Hosgood.

The parents signed a petition in favour of the retention of Mr. Garner, as principal to the proposed school. Subsequently, whether it had been the government's intention or not, the public for once had its own way, and Mr. Garner and a majority of the Academy staff were retained. They were joined by Mrs. Hugh Tulloch from the Umtali High School while the Rev. Robins retired from the scholastic field to continue with his clerical work. One point over which the government was adamant was the boarding establishment; it refused to take over the cost of running it. As a compromise the government asked Mr. Garner to run the hostel privately with the aid of a £20 annual grant from the government, which Mr. Garner accepted.

The government purchased the American Church school building for a total of £2,802 15s. 0d. (this price included additions and repairs) and further bought furniture and requisites from the Umtali Public School and Umtali High School for £439 14s. 4d. The school was opened in January, 1909 under the headship of Mr. Garner and was first of all called the Umtali Public School. The school had 117 pupils distributed in the various standards as follows:-

Below
Standards I I II III IV V VI VII
No.of pupils 40 22 16 15 9 7 8

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CHAPTER II

BURSTING SEAMS

Amalgamation was "most advantageous to the people of Umtali," though its advantages were not immediately to be seen, for like every fledgling, the school had to wait a while before it could fly. From 1909 to 1922, expansion at the school continued, even though the First World War momentarily slowed it down. During this period the numbers of pupils rose from 117 in 1909 to 326 in 1922.

By the end of 1909 the school had submitted its first Beit Scholarship entrance - all six who wrote failed, but in 1910 out of the eight who completed the examination five were awarded1 scholarships. Further changes were also made to the educational system during the course of 1910. The Cape School Higher Certificate was dropped in favour of the Cape Junior Certificate which was to be taken in Standard 8. Thus, to recap, the system was: The K.G. department consisted of sub-standards A and B, the junior section from Standards 1-5, while the upper school consisted of Standard 6, Standard 7 (the Beit Class), Standard 8 (the Junior Certificate form), Standard 9 (the junior Matriculation class, although no public examinations were written in this standard), and finally Standard 10 (the senior Matriculation class). For the first year after its introduction the Junior Certificate was not written at the school and pupils who were successful in obtaining a Beit scholarship were advised to proceed to either Salisbury or Bulawayo to take their J.C. In 1914 a statistical study of the results of the J.C. and Matriculation examinations was performed and came to the conclusion that the results in the above examinations in Rhodesia were "above the average of the results for similar schools, in the Cape." By 1917, however, the Beit Scholarship system was remodelled. A junior Beit examination was written in Standard 5 in addition to the senior Beit examination written in Standard 7. This junior Beit scholarship gave the opportunity to primary pupils to continue on to secondary school.

In 1910 one fact stands out as a depressing certainty - the school building (the old Umtali Academy) was in a dilapidated condition, having been condemned by the Medical Officer of Health and the Inspector of Public Works. One pupil, now Mrs. Parkin, had the misfortune one day to fall through the rotten floor boards in the music room. It was evident that new buildings were needed and would have to be completed with the utmost speed. It was to this end that, in 1911, the School Advisory Committee negotiated with the Local Authority for a new site for the proposed school. Consequently an area near the Market Square was released by the Municipality and building soon began. There were to be six classrooms, three cloakrooms, ablution blocks, a detached office with store room behind, a staff room with store room behind, and a large divided room which was to be used for the K.G. divisions. Before the completion of this school, to meet, with the rapid expansion in the number of pupils, the Kilwinning Lodge (the present Assembly of God Hall) was hired at £5 per month for use as a school room. This building 1 was also being used as the Masonic Lodge and as the Presbyterian Church. The new buildings were eventually occupied in August, 1912, with an I opening roll of 185 pupils and it still stands today - the District I Commissioner's Office and Technical Institute.

During the same year Mr. Garner was transferred and a teacher. Mr. MacDonald, became acting Headmaster for a short period, till succeeded by Mr. J. G. Sutherland in April, 1913. Mr. Sutherland, a bachelor, was a distinguished scholar and an experienced teacher, having a M.A. Honours degree in Mathematics and Science from Edinburgh, and had recently been elected a Fellow of the Geological and Meteorological Societies. He skilfully guided the school through the period of the First World War. Although he

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has been described as a dour Scot he was, nevertheless, kind and gentle. Despite being a good Greek and Latin scholar, he found it necessary to keep a dictionary by his side to check his errors in spelling.

A month after his arrival the school grounds were publicly opened on the 10th May by Mr. Myburgh, M.L.C., who spoke to a large gathering which included many people from the town and outlying districts. The grounds already boasted flower and vegetable plots and a small orchard, the work of Mr. C. E. Green, a versatile member of staff who was also in charge of the recently formed Cadet Corps. Mr. Green was later killed on active service during the First World War. Unfortunately the grounds were neglected during the War and deteriorated to a poor state. It was not until 1920 that a caretaker was appointed to rectify this matter.

To run the School must seem to us today to have been a very inexpensive undertaking, for in 1913, the total for the salaries of the eight teachers for the whole year amounted to £1,628. The Principal received £360 per annum while the lowest paid member £180 per annum. All eight members of staff held recognised educational qualifications which included Mr. A. Harrison, B-.Sc, Mrs. R. Tulloch, London Matriculation certificate and Mr. C. E. Green and Miss L. Austin both E.E.D.

Although the School hours remained from 8.30 to 1.30, the time-table was revised under Mr. Sutherland. At the same time a Staff reference library was instituted while the general School library had a collection of 242 volumes. For extra mural activities, there was gardening, Cadets. Scouting (introduced under the leadership of Mr. A. Harrison in 1912).while on Saturday mornings special gymnastic classes were held for boys and girls alike.

By the end of 1913 the teaching had improved "its intellectual tone" and the subject matter of work had broadened out. This broadening out is well illustrated by the History syllabus of the period which stated; "it will take the pupil through a straight course of Rhodesian, South African, English and Imperial History, with a background of World events and leave an intelligent child with some notion of the doings of his ancestors here and at home, and how the Empire has come to be what it is." At this time the homework timetable was introduced and also a system of quarterly examinations. All pupils were drilled for a quarter of an hour each day in P.T., and a games committee was formed to attempt to place school sports on a better footing. Scripture lessons were held twice weekly, on Tuesdays and Thursdays, by clergy of the various denominations. In 1913 two additional classrooms were built but plans for the whole school to be housed under one roof were dropped when all building operations ceased with the commencement of the War.

HOSTEL PROBLEMS

With regard to boarding facilities, the Government had justifiably been unwilling to run a hostel in Umtali. The districts around the town did not assist the maintenance of a boarding establishment - Melsetter was shut off by economic and geographic conditions, the national border closed the east, while the Penhalonga area remained sparsely populated. Scholars who came as boarders from the Melsetter and Chipinga districts, were often delayed from reaching school in time for its opening by swollen rivers. They usually journeyed to Umtali by means of a coach.

The boarding establishment consequently had been left in the personal charge of the Headmaster, but by 1911, Mr. Garner's hostel had been a complete failure.

Unable to provide the necessary personal funds to make the hostel a paying proposition the state of the furniture had deteriorated, while it was reported that the boarders

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"appeared to loaf about the place, upstairs and downstairs." Their favourite occupation apparently was to sit on the school steps facing the street. And so the B.S.A. Company was forced to draw a deep breath and reluctantly take over the hostel. The furniture along with various other articles which Mr. Garner had bought for the hostel were purchased, and a matron, Mrs. Brown, appointed.

This did not solve the problem, however, and in 1913 boarding conditions were still shocking. The boys' dormitory consisted of "two small rooms, of depressing character, the floors devoid of any covering of any kind - one moribund chest of drawers with three decrepit drawers in it for four boys, one broken mirror - and one small table." (Mr. R. Mclntosh to Sir Joseph Vincent in 1913). There was only one bathroom for both boys and girls. But the Government was unwilling to build a new hostel as the numbers tended to fluctuate e.g. 17 in 1910, 5 in 1912 and 10 in 1913. Nevertheless the old Academy building was closed down as a hostel and two private houses rented for accommodating boarders. One of these was ' Tipperary' which still stands above the present Athlone House and the other was named 'The Annexe' and was situated across the street from Tipperary.

But by 1917 'Tipperary' (which belonged to Mrs. Collins) was also in a disgraceful state: it was damp, leaking, and in many places the woodwork was rotten.
Furthermore his Honour the Administrator of Southern Rhodesia forbade the use of the ' Annexe ' which had been used as a boys' residence. ' Tipperary' was repaired and used by the girls while the boys were boarded out in rented property or private homes. Mr. Barker leased his house for this purpose at £12 per month, while Mrs. Pickett leased her house at £17 10s. per month. A third house was rented from Mrs. Bennett. Later in 1919 a new dormitory for boys was erected on a Government stand near the school — a wood and iron building which had been the lumber room at the Hospital. At the same time it was requested that as the girls' dormitory was detached from all other buildings iron bars should be erected at the windows. In 1922, to take the overflow of girls from ' Tipperary,' three houses were rented, two in Ross Avenue and another in Carrington Road. When functions were held at the school at night, the boarders had to be led by lantern through the veldt to their destination.

IN AND OUT OF THE CLASSROOM

Apart from the cessation of building operations the War made no other breaches in school life, although at noon every day the pupils would assemble on the veranda where Mr. Sutherland would hold prayers for peace. Instead, the most delicate problem affecting the
school was the classification of the pupils into the appropriate class a problem made more difficult by the increase in the numbers of pupils to over 200. This problem was not satisfactorily answered until later in the School's development. Various schemes were introduced to occupy the boys outside the school: for instance a class of leading boys spent some time at the Premier Estate during the holidays. Evening school classes still thrived and offered tuition to the boys in the following subjects:

Machine Construction Drawing, Practical Mathematics, Business Correspondence, Geography, Book-keeping, Shorthand and Typewriting. All girls from Standard 1 to 6 did compulsory needlework having to undergo examinations and sew garments, producing specimen work which underwent regular government inspection.
Plasticine modelling was the favourite subject for the Kindergarten.

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To get to school day scholars used donkeys, horses and the odd bicycle, while their "piccanins" carried their books. During break the girls skipped while the boys played "Romans and Saxons " with dust-bin lids and sticks over at the Market Square. A godsend to pupils was the terrifying Rhodesian thunderstorm. When one of these threatened, the school was abandoned to give the pupils a chance of reaching the safety of their homes dry. Furthermore, in those days, the stream that runs past the present Queen's Hall turned into a raging torrent as soon as a medium size shower passed overhead. Even bridges built across the stream would occasionally be washed away leaving pupils stranded' on the wrong bank.

1915 saw a growth in numbers in Standard 7 and over -there was now a total of 20 pupils. In 1913 there had been only 2, this had increased to 12 at the beginning of 1914, only to fall at the end of the year. This increasing number "indicates the growth of public confidence in the school." Teaching was an essential service during the War and the majority of the staff remained at the school for its duration. Up till now staffing had been of an unstable nature, but this permanence secured a continuity of work and this was a primary factor in the school's rising success. An additional subject was placed on the curriculum - woodwork, in which the boys displayed keenness and intelligence. Rudimentary articles of furniture were made from packing cases, an activity which was only curtailed by a shortage of tools.

Geography, in which the pupils had received only an elementary grounding, now included a study of Africa, North and South America, in Standards 5 to 6, with Asia and the British Isles being examined in the Matriculation classes. No Geometry was taught in Standard 5 and only the elementary principles of Algebra studied.

Sport was still very much in the doldrums as lack of finance had prevented the completion of two tennis courts. It was hoped that a master with special qualifications in athletics might have given "the required impetus to this work" but while the War was on a master of this sort was not to be had.

Even as early as 1915 the possibility of producing a school magazine was discussed but the school had to wait a few years before any plans along these lines achieved fruition.

In 1916 the attendance figure at the school had shot up to 252 and the school buildings had split their seams. One class was taught in the school grounds, another at the Kilwinning Lodge, while the science room was far too small to contain the larger classes. To overcome this problem one of the large cloakrooms was converted into a science laboratory. The Municipality was averse to alienating any further part of the Market Square for school buildings and thus it was necessary to look around for other sources which might offer accommodation for the overflowing school. This expansion was finally met by hiring such buildings as the Dutch Reformed Church Hall; the building known successively as Phillipi's, Stricklands and the Umtali Cinema, the site of which is presently occupied by Messrs. Puzey and Payne; and the Rhodesia Trading Company's buildings (now the block from the Umtali Post to C.A.B.S.). Thus the school became scattered all over Umtali making administration more difficult. Every morning classes dressed in khaki — even the girls used to dress in khaki — could be observed marching about town, crocodile style with a teacher at their head, on the way to their assigned building.

One teacher, who had joined the Umtali Public School after the outbreak of the War, deserves special mention. Miss S. Maritz, an old-pupil who has had connections with the Umtali Schools for well over forty years, relates that Mr. C. H. L. Barker was one of the fiercest teachers to ever teach in Umtali. Indeed he challenged his class, at the tender

End of Page 21

age of eleven, to learn Tennyson's epic "Morte d'Arthur" Only two pupils, Stephanie Maritz and Mary Palmer managed to recite it word perfect. The inspectors in their annual report commented that his scholars "understand their work to the last detail before they proceed to put it on paper. "Mr. Barker also rendered service in other fields being senior lecturer at the evening school and also a commercial master.

By 1917 the school was reputed to be enjoying " a healthy and vigorous condition, " with the staff " working well " and excellent relations existed between the teachers and scholars. In this year the school held a concert in aid of the Rhodesian Children's Ambulance Fund, whose aim was to purchase an ambulance for the use of the Red Cross working in France. The U.P.S. managed to raise a total of £84 2s. 4d.which was duly presented to this fund. In May, 1915, a similar concert had raised £50 for the same fund.

The Public Works Department was likewise fighting a war on behalf of the U.P.S. and the white ants, which were carrying out a frenzied attack on one of the store-rooms, at length succumbed to the efforts of the P.W.D.

A General Edwards, who acted as inspecting officer at the school's Empire Day Parade in June, 1917, was said to have been very flattering in his praise of our Girl Guides " who made a smart appearance. " They had been formed under the guidance of Miss W. O. Hards early in 1913 and as far as research has revealed, this school contingent was the first of its kind to come into existence in Rhodesia. The Guide uniform, whose design was influenced by the war, consisted of a khaki blouse and skirt and black stock-tags.

Increasing numbers of Dutch pupils led parents to present a petition in favour of the regular teaching of Dutch but this was rejected as it was claimed it would "disorganise the school timetable and work generally." Nevertheless, due to manifold communication problems which arose. Dutch, as opposed to Afrikaans (which was officially introduced in 1922), was officially introduced into the school curriculum by the end of 1917 - three hours weekly per class were devoted to the teaching of this subject.

While the war was drawing to an end Umtali was in the throes of a "Spanish" 'Flu epidemic and from 14th October, 1918 to 28th January, 1919, the school was closed down and used as a hospital. The school in no way suffered as a result of this "except that in some rooms the floors had been stained with something that does not appear to be able to be washed off! " (School Advisory Committee's report of 29th January, 1919).

In 1918 it was claimed that the " higher classes, however, have rarely at this stage of the school's history a sufficiently strong foundation for their work, and they have the additional disadvantages from their smallness of being composite classes " — the distribution in the " higher classes" being Standard VII - 6, J.C. - 5, Junior Matric - 4, and Senior Matric. - 3.

On November 6th, 1919, Lieutenant-Colonel Methuen visited the school, inspected the Guides (the number of which stood at 34) and gave the children an account of his book concerning the French campaign with interesting references being made in connection with various stages of the fighting in Flanders. He also presented the school with a war memento - a first class Iron Cross. On 20th November, Major Parsons inspected the Cadets who had recently won the Commandant General's Cup. This Cup was presented to the best cadet unit at the annual cadet camp held at Gwelo. The Cadets under Captain A. Harrison had been drilled for a quarter of an hour each day (during break) with one

End of Page 22

hour per week out of school. The seniors, further, also spent one afternoon every week; at the rifle range, in preparation for this camp. One of the favourite pastimes of "off-duty" cadets was to borrow a rifle, a few rounds from the armoury and go shooting up at Tiger Kloof.

SOME ORGANISED SPORT

Sport at last was showing signs of organisation but as yet there was no definite games timetable. Cricket nets were erected in the school grounds and used by both juniors and seniors. A sports ground at the Market Square was granted by the Municipality in 1919, the seniors receiving the privilege of its use. A cricket pitch was subsequently laid out here by the boys themselves. Boxing was also brought to the fore in 1917 and quietly flourished, being guided by the expert gloves of Mr. N. A. S. Hoffman. Forty-five boys were regularly attending cricket, displaying keen interest in the sport which consisted of net practices, with matches between the various school sections (as yet there were no houses). Some of the players during March, 1919, were invited by Major Tomlinson to play at the Police Camp.

Association football was once again revived as a major sport to the senior boys during 1918 and experienced a successful first season with a large number of boys participating in the game. For the girls Mr. Barker laid out a croquet lawn —this at first proved very popular. Mr. Barker also supervised the building of the long awaited tennis Court which was completed in 1917. The girls' hopes of starting hockey in early 1919 were dashed when difficulties were encountered in purchasing the necessary sticks from Cape Town. When they did eventually arrive tremendous enthusiasm was shown by the girls for the sport, the senior girls wanting to start a school team immediately. In 1919 rugby was also started, but not enough boys participated in the sport to warrant the forming of a team. During the same year it was decided to make athletics an annual sporting event.

In 1922 a meeting of senior boys "decided unanimously that Rugby should be the school sport;" the juniors continued to play soccer. The XJ.A.A. Grounds were procured for the use of the girls' hockey, while Mr. Livingston encouraged them in their tennis, providing further courts for them. To acquire equipment for these games a 2/6d. fee per term was levied from those in Standard 3 and above.

1921 achieved a first — in that a straight play was performed by the school instead of the usual concert. "She Stoops to Conquer" was presented in the Drill Hall but unfortunately no comments on its quality have been found. Standard 2 in 1921 was without doubt a problem class with the ages of pupils ranging from 9 years 10 months to 17 years 3 months. This was partly due to Dutch children who spoke little English joining the U.P.S. after a school run by the Dutch Reformed Church had been forced to close down.

At the end of 1921 the school sadly and with deep regret witnessed the departure of Mr. Sutherland who had resigned from the Government (B.S.A. Co.) service.
For the first term the school came under the control of Mr. A. R. Mackenzie, until his appointment as Director of Education, when Mr. H. G. Livingston took over the headship in March, 1922. If Mr. Sutherland had built an educational house of firm walls, it was left to Mr. Livingston to decorate and plaster it with his outstanding abilities - the school was greatly in need of a man of his capabilities. Mr. Livingston was born in Lurgen, Northern Ireland, and obtained his M.A. degree at Trinity College, Dublin, where he had had a brilliant career as a classical scholar. He changed the

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atmosphere of the school, welding it into an efficient working machine. Mr. Livingston was young, energetic and a great disciplinarian.

The school enjoyed the confidence of the public, as the enrolment well showed; there were now 351 pupils — with 57 pupils in the higher classes. This increase in numbers was not accompanied by any increase in accommodation and so Dutch classes were held in the staff room which was "badly ventilated and quite unsuitable for use as a class-room " - the pupils had to sit on the floor. The science room which could comfortably take 18 pupils was used by large classes with 40 and over, even the K.G. sub-standards A, B, and O were housed in one large room which was divided by curtains. The enormous numbers made rearranging in the upper form necessary and the class system was revised. LA new form Remove 'B' was formed, being made of part of the J.C. class and the Senior Beit standard,
Remove 'A' consisted of the remainder of the J. C. class and part of Standard VII—the pupils being allocated to these classes according to their intelligence. The timetable was also revised, the Matriculation class's timetable being as follows:

8 - 8.10: P.T.
8.10 - 8.40: Algebra
8.40 - 9.20: Arithmetic
9.20 - 10: History
10 - 10.40: Latin
11.40 - 11.40: English
11.40 – 12.20: French
12.20 -1: Geometry

A democratic referendum had been held to decide on the length of the school's hours, the results being:—

Main School
for 8 a.m. - 1 p.m.: 191
for 8.30 a.m. - 1.30 p.m.: 36

K.G.
for 8 a.m. - 1 p.m: 26
for 8.30 a.m. - 1.30 p.m: 24

Abstentions and spoiled papers are; not recorded. It was resolved, with the exception of the K.G. who would start at 8.30 a.m. that school would begin at 8 a.m.

Looking to the future it was obvious that a new school was needed and that the senior school must break from the junior.

End of Page 24

Photo 25 A
Bisley Team Shield Winners, 1918.
Back Row: A. Harrison - L. Waring - C. Remmer - A. Lloyd - C.H.L. Brown
Front Row: Unknown - E.F. Luckess - E.C. Meikle

Photo 25 B
Mrs. Pickett's House, first used as a hostel in 1918.

Photo 26 A
The Opening of Chancellor House in 1924.

{hptp 26 B
The Opening of the new Senior School in 1926 by his Excellency the
High Commissioner the Earl of Athlone

End of Page 26

CHAPTER III

CONSOLIDATION
1923-1931

Under the "wise, tactful yet firm control" of Mr. Livingston which made " itself felt in every activity of the school, the general level of Attainment, " was greatly raised till "a healthier atmosphere pervaded every classroom.

Additional changes were made to the exam system in 1923 The Joint Matriculation Board of South Africa widened scope of its examinations, by drawing up a School leaving Certificate. This could attained in five subjects as against the six required for Matriculation and had a less exacting grouping of subjects contained within a greater range. Subject pass marks for the Certificate were fixed at a slightly level than those necessary for Matric. When Southern Rhodesia ultimately switched to the Cambridge School Certificate ordinary passes in this examination were equated to the School Leaving Certificate passes, and 'credit' or 'distinction' to Matriculation^ To head the many firsts of 1923, it was announced at the commencement of the year that Mary Young headed the list for the Rhodesian Senior Beit Scholarship Examination, thus bringing this .honour to the school for the first time. This feat was repeated again in 1927 by Molly Watson By 1928 the Senior Beit Examination had fallen away and was replaced by a Southern Rhodesian Departmental Junior Certificate, which was written in Form III; the Senior Beit Scholarships were to be awarded on the results of this exam.

In 1929 a qualifying test for all pupils in Standard V, irrespective of age, was introduced on the recommendation of the Tate Commission. From 1930 onwards, for a few years, the Junior Beit Scholarships were awarded on the outcome of these results. Also in 1929, the legislative Assembly decreed that Education was to be compulsory up to the age of 15. While in October, of the same year, the proposal that the year bo reduced from four to three terms was adopted.

It is wise at this stage to give some Idea of how the school was faring in the examination fields. In 1926 (which was a record year for exam successes) three out of four candidates entered for Matric, passed; while in the South African Junior Certificate 13 passes were obtained (9 had been obtained in 1924); one first Class grade being earned. In the Beit Exam the four pupils entered were placed as follows: 3rd, 9th, 13th and 14th These results can be compared with those of 1930, in which 11 of 13 candidates for the Matriculation and School Leaving Certificate were successful; out of the 27 candidates for the Junior Certificate 24 passed of whom 4 obtained First Class Grades. Six Beit Scholarships were awarded to the School in 1930 as against 4 in 1927.

A NOTABLE YEAR

The year 1923 will be remembered for the various firsts it achieved in a number of differing school activities. A debating society (the first extra-mural hobby) was started at the Boys' Hostel and held fortnightly. However, despite repeated invitations to the day scholars, they never attended any of the meetings. In the sporting field the Umtali School was "delighted that Salisbury High School Cater Prince Edward) could send a 1st XV down to play," and in our premier inter-school match we were thoroughly trounced by 37 points to 0. The most eminent accomplishment and proudest moment came in May, when at last our school was officially graded as a "High School" by the government, due to the large increases in the higher classes, Standard VI and above.

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It was felt that now the "school has grown, has, as it were, reached manhood in the hard earned dignity recently attained and like all creative spirits must have its voice" - (1st School Magazine - 1923). Number One of the Magazine was published in December, and consisted of 12 pages and cost One Shilling. The total sports entry for 1923 amounted to just over one page, while there were three photographs. The magazine was edited by its originator, Mr. G. M. Millar of the English Department. This same Mr. Millar taught "with enthusiasm and with scholarly appreciation of literary values "but tended to "overestimate the literary capacity of the ' rank and file' of the class." He stated in the editorial that the magazine's aim was to illustrate the *" many-sided activities of a living school. We hope to mirror all the movements of growing minds." "You may hear us in shouts of triumph, sometimes our dirges: our gritting of the teeth and our far visions; our thoughtfulness and our fun; our welcomes and our farewells; our loves and our loyalties. We hope to show a spirit here that shall carry our school forward until it is second to none."

The 1923 magazine, according to Magazine Number 2, "became invested in our memory with a kind of halo of glory," but it was realised that it was only " a stepping stone. " In skeleton the magazine was the same as that of to-day, the only real difference being that flesh has been added. By 1926 a ' Valete' section appeared in the magazine and was included in the Hostel House notes. In 1926 it was decided to make the appearance of the magazine a regular affair every Christmas (the 1925 Magazine had been published during Easter 1926) starting from that year, and by so doing "chronicling the Achievements" of the closing year, and "conferring upon certain manuscripts the beautification of print."

To encounter the overflow of girl boarders a further house, Mrs. Bennett’s in Darlington, was hired in 1923, while another, that of the Meikles was hired at the start of 1926, The hostel in Ross Avenue being incapable of accommodating all of the girls. From Hostel notes it can be gleaned that life in the dormitories was a bore - "the great hobby amongst the girls seems to be to invent marvellous and intricate schemes by which they may count the days that remain of the term" (1923 Magazine). When the girls had moved off to Darlington the boys had stormed back into Tipperary, but by 1923, with this old house in a state of decay and with an every increasing number of male boarders, Tipperary was no longer adequate. It was therefore planned to erect a new boys' Hostel, which was to be incorporated within the expenditure of the Second Imperial loan. On February 19th, 1924, His Excellency, the Governor, Sir John Chancellor, opened the new hostel - which was to be known as Chancellor House. It had a capacity for 60 pupils, cost £14,155 to build, and is still used at Chancellor School for the purpose of boarding. This was the first building to be erected wholly as a school hostel and was a relieving break from the continual burden of hiring private houses. However, the girls complained that they could not see why they "should not have a nice big building like the new Hostel," (Magazine, 1923)

THE HOUSE SYSTEM, UNIFORMS
AND "WHIPPET OVERLANDER"

The opening of Chancellor eventually led to the passing of another milestone in the Umtali High School's History, when at the beginning C the last term, 1924, Mr. Livingston introduced the House System. The system was as follows: the boys were divided into three houses. Chancellor for boarders, Moffat and Stanley for Day Scholars. The girls were similarly organised with Connaught being the Hostel House, and Milner and Athlone forming the Day Houses. The inauguration of this system provided a great impetus to the girls' games, in

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particular, with great competition amongst the three. "As a result of this, organised games of tennis and hockey were arranged, coming under the supervision and direction of the ladies. Nevertheless, it was reported that a few girls did not participate in games. Among these were "a small portion of whom are unfortunately physically unfit for any strenuous exercise, and a few have still to be convinced of the moral and physical benefits of properly organised games for girls, as well as boys," (1924 Magazine). In the first Inter-House competitions held, Connaught and Athlone drew the hockey, with Connaught triumphant in the tennis. While for the boys, Chancellor was 'tops' in the rugby, with Stanley winning the athletics.

Athletics received a booster when Mr. F. Whitton generously presented the school with a handsome Floating Trophy. This was to be awarded annually to the senior winner of the Victor Ludorum and was to be accompanied by a yearly medal. The sports were usually held at the U.A.A. grounds, after the customary and conventional Empire Day Parade in May. An added feature to the sports came in 1926 when for the first time the girls competed, with Connaught emerging as the victorious house. The Victrix Ludorum came into existence in 1930. The boys were also awarded medals during and after 1926, for each individual event won, while the girls received either brooches or spoons. The medals carried the school crest, which was surrounded by a ring of blue enamel. At the 1927 inter-school sports, again, "we were sadly eclipsed, but we look forward to better times ahead . . . Never say die Umtali" (1927 Magazine.) The athletics were divided into two age groups - senior and junior. The girls had by this time, (1923) another three tennis courts built for their use; competition in this sport was restricted to playing against ladies' town and country clubs, e.g. Park Club. Likewise in cricket and rugby, the boys played against clubs such as Old Crocks, The Railway and Manicaland Clubs.

At last, in 1924, the U.H.S. was given a proper school uniform. Here was something in which the pupils could exhibit excessive self-esteem. They were now positively identified as belonging to the Umtali High School. A point of interest is that the first colour blazers were white, the colours badge being embroidered on the pocket. Mr. A. Harrison, a member of staff had previously designed the original school crest in circa 1919, and this was accompanied by the most suitable school motto, which he also chose. Along with the House System and introduction of the school uniform, came the scourge to renegade students, - the Prefectorial System.

Eight teachers taught the senior part of the school by 1924. Out remaining five standards (Junior 'Section) four classes consisted of 40 or more scholars. The teachers remained as " enthusiastic as ever, but teaching such large numbers sometimes under disadvantageous conditions, is well calculated to damp their ardour; it is certainly affecting their health." (Inspectors' Report, November 3rd and 4th, 1924). Consequently, a number of these standards were sub-divided to relieve the extensive pressures applied by such large numbers on the staff. A School Clerk was also appointed to assist the Headmaster during the course of 1924. The girls needlework, for the same year, came in for considerable praise, when it was stated, that "for excellence of work, execution, finish and good taste in decoration, this school undoubtedly takes the heading place for work above Standard III. (Instructresses' Report on Needlework and Handiwork Exhibition, 1924). By the end of 1924, the school had 297 on the roll, an increase of 56 over the corresponding period of 1923. The pupils were distributed as follows, - K.G. - 68; Stds. I-V, - 216. while the High School section Std. VI, Std. VII and above had 115 pupils.

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Three members of staff, Mr. Hutchinson, Miss Knipe,and Miss Robertson, failed to arrive in time for the opening of the school on the 29th January, 1925. They had departed from Melsetter, in an automobile on the 24th January, but due to the terrible conditions of the road, failed to reach Umtali until the 31st. Their diet on this arduous journey consisted mainly of native rice. Mr. Hutchinson's private car, a "Whippet Overlander" was, the first unofficial" staff car." The same exceptional heavy rains, which delayed the three staff members, prevented most o the boarders from the Melsetter and Chipinga districts from arriving I time for the opening of the New Year. Those who attempted to set forth for Umtali were in the main obliged to return to their points of origin - most eventually reached the sanctuary of the hostels one month late!

CADETS AND GUIDES

In July, His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, visited Rhodesia and the school despatched, to Salisbury, 50 cadets, 50 Girl Guides, plus 80 others, to attend a parade held in his honour. The cadets had the usual drill, P.T. and band, but their training was somewhat varied by the addition of two Lewis guns (medium machine gun, which fired a .303 cartridge) to the school's armoury. At the Annual cadet camps, held at Gwelo, the daily routine was as follows: 6 a.m. Reveille; 6.30-7 a.m., P.T.: 7.30 a.m., Breakfast; 8 a.m., sick parade; 8.30 a.m., Battalion parade: 9.15 a.m., guard mounting; 12.30 p.m. dinner; 2 p.m., bathing parade: 5 p.m., retreat; 5.30 p.m., supper; 6.30 p.m., prayers and orders; 7 p.m.. Officers mess; 9 p.m., First Post; 9.15 p.m., Last Post and at 9.30 p.m.’Lights Out.’ At these camps the cadets always managed to distinguish themselves, particularly in national range shooting competitions. The merit of the marksmanship of the cadets is well shown when, in 1929, they won the Imperial Challenge Shield. This competition was held at the end of a musketry course for the Southern Rhodesia Cadet Corps. The school succeeded in beating nine other schools to obtain this coveted trophy. Mr. A. Ball, who saw service at the school under Mr. Sutherland, Mr. Livingston, Mr. Hill and Mr. Gledhill, (and who in 1947 became Head of Milton School) trained these cadets.

To the girls' constant regret, their Guide camps were not held on a national scale but were held in local surroundings, e.g., at farms near Rusape, Transsau Estate, and Execution Rock, and were of a much shorter duration than cadet camps. However, their routine was not as vigorous as that of the boys. In the morning, the camp stirred at the sounds of Reveille, breakfast then followed, whilst at 9.15 a.m., the Court of Honour, "presided on its particular ant heap "or" under a tree": after this came a camp inspection, followed by the hoisting of the colours. For the rest of the day the Patrol Leaders would take their girls on excursions into the countryside. To quote from the 1930 magazine " soon the Camp was silent, but the hills around resounded with our calls and the age-long peace of native fortifications and Bushman paintings was rudely shattered." When they proudly received their Company Colours from Lady Chancellor, in 1926, our Girl Guides made a perfect study of smartness. These colours were dedicated by the Rector of Umtali.

Boxing for the boys was held regularly every Wednesday. A report on the annual boxing tournament at the Drill Hall stated that, "it amused us all to see how many were optimistic enough to think that they could frighten an opponent by stamping at him." (1928 Magazine.) Nevertheless, in 1927, two of our boxers, A. Heymans, fighting in the lightweight division, and J. Ferreira, a flyweight, both

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won their respective weights in the Rhodesian Championships held at Salisbury.

In the rugby domain the U.H.S. senior team won the recently inaugurated Junior League, made up by the School XV, Town 'B' and Manicaland Club 'B' teams, in 1925. But the school again lost to P.E., 30 pts. to 5 pts. More games were required, "against teams taught to put the technique and strategy first and brute force after." (1925 Magazine). Until a proper field was built, the rugby matches were played on a normal earth or ground field. Most girls and boys alike, at this time, suffered from the fact that there was a lack of a sufficient number of average playing pupils to enable members of the first teams to play together in practice games. Thus early teams were not of a high standard. This was very true of our rugby team. Even then, players, "preferred to clasp an opponent lovingly round the neck," than go low, and " some members were inclined to forget that they were merely part of a team." (1926 Magazine.) It was not until August 1st, 1931, that the First XV won an inter-school victory. They succeeded in beating St. Georges by a goal, a try and a drop goal — 11 pts., to St. Georges Nil, All Umtali's points were scored by one player - R. Michell. As a majority of the school's rugby and cricket players were in Chancellor House, it was therefore decided in 1925 to split Chancellor into 'A' and 'B' Sections. This made the house competitions more balanced. The same fate befell Athlone in 1930, when it was divided into North and 'South Houses - this proved beneficial in all girls' sports. The Chancellor House grounds were fenced in during 1925, with the delightful result that the cricket field was "secure against the depredations of passing cattle - at last."(1925 Magazine)

Swimming for the School began when the municipal bath was opened near the main park - "it was a great surprise to find such a large number of children could swim and dive." (1925 Magazine) The U.H.S. also applied for affiliation to the Royal Life Saving Society and was duly accepted. In April, 1926, "our first attempt at a swimming gala was made, and because it was our first attempt, we kept it private." (1926 Magazine) This first 'cloak and dagger' gala was won by Chancellor (boys) and Connaught (girls) and consisted of 17 events, with freestyle and breaststroke events, plus backstroke. To compare times, the boys winning time for the backstroke one length, was 31 seconds, whilst that of the girls was 551 seconds. However, the girls triumphed over the boys in a relay and hoped "to repeat it (the win) whenever called upon. "Perhaps as a result, swimming was introduced as an official sport for girls. At the first school swimming sports conducted in public, in 1927, Moffat and Milner attained the top places in the respective boys and girls competitions,

The salary scales by the mid-twenties had risen considerably, with the Principal amassing a wage of £690 p.a., while the lowest salary, for one of the members of staff, amounted to £230 p.a. The year 1926 opened on a ghastly footing. The woodwork room was burgled; three girls absconded after the first assembly, but were later found at the foot of Christmas Pass; and to cap it all, "Miss Vice reports rats eating books in her cupboard." (Log Book 1926) Fortunately, such affairs did not continue throughout the year.

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THE OPENING OF THE NEW SCHOOL

Like a "growing schoolboy," the U.H.S. was still bursting its clothes. The K.G. section and three other classes were out in the ' cold.' Furthermore, the science room had no seats and standing for lengthy periods round a lecture bench caused the pupils to become "listless and inattentive." (Inspection Report 9th and 10th October, 1924.) The room itself measured 20ft. by 16ft. and housed classes ranging from 8 to 40 students. This no doubt accounted for the reason why Umtali had "an inferior record to that of- any other Government School in the Colony in Physical Science." (Inspector's Report 1st December, 1925) By the beginning of 1925 the U.H.S. had a total of 20 teachers, 429 scholars. Altogether there were 113 boarders - 55 boys and 58 girls. In November of the same year, only 162 pupils were accommodated in the actual school buildings, while 282 were housed outside the school grounds. It naturally followed that the government put plans into effect for the construction of a new U.H.S. The proposal, "that the new buildings be for higher classes, and that Science, Woodwork and Domestic Science rooms be erected on the new site, " (S.A.C. Minutes, 15th August, 1925) was unanimously adopted by the Schools Advisory Committee.

"Read, Mark and remember! 1926" - stated the magazine for that same year. The reason for this exclamation was that on August 10th the High Commissioner, Major General, The Earl of Athlone, accompanied by Her Royal Highness, the Princess Alice journeyed to Umtali to perform two memorable ceremonies. After a Civic Welcome at the station, the couple proceeded to the proposed site of a new Girls' Hostel -"a site made sacred by the blood and sweat poured out in many strenuous rugger matches" (1926 Magazine). At the site, they were met by the Colonial Secretary, Mr. W. M. Leggate, C.M.G., along with the Director of Education. The Girl Guides and Brownies were lined up to greet them, as were large numbers of the public. Princess Alice was handed a spade by Mr. Leggate and she I removed the first sod on this piece of virgin veld saying, ' I have much pleasure in performing the first work on the building of the new Girls' Hostel.'" (1926 Magazine). The Colonial Secretary then announced that permission "had graciously been given to name the new building ' Athlone House.'" It had been originally planned for Princess Alice to lay the foundation stone of this hostel but this did not come about. The party then moved 300 yards down to where the new Senior School was situated. On arrival there, the Royal Salute was sounded and the Company of Cadets on parade presented arms. Mr. C. Eickhoff, M.L.A., (Chairman of the Schools Advisory Committee for many years and later Mayor of Umtali) welcomed the guests, and went on to briefly outline the History of the School to date. He then called upon His Excellency to open the new buildings. Cadet Lieutenant T. Ward stepped forward and presented a silver key to the Earl of Athlone, as a "memento of the occasion." The Earl spoke generally on education in Rhodesia and then formally declared the School open. His Excellency and Princess Alice after having inspected the buildings, left amid enthusiastic cheers, which were not entirely unconnected with the promise of an extra holiday." (1926 Magazine)

The school stood on ten acres of ground, with the main building, in shape, forming the three sides of a quadrangle. The cloistered verandah, supported by lines of pillars with round arches made " a pleasant study in perspective." Provision had been made for eight classrooms, music and domestic science rooms, while situated in a separate frock, consisting of 2 large rooms, were the woodwork room and the science laboratory. A classroom, equipped with book

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cabinets, housed the Library of 550 works of fiction and 600 general works. Library users were compelled to contribute 6d. a term to keen it in a state of good repair. Unfortunately, in 1928 the library lost its special privacy to fulfil the roll of an extra classroom. Two staff rooms, one for men and one for women, were erected, as was a storeroom.

The Umtali High School was now divided into two parts: The Junior Section, K.G. to Std. V, remaining at the Old Site and the Senior Section, Forms I to V (Previously Std. VI to Matric) were housed at the new site. Both parts of the school, though separated, retained certain similarities, such as, games, cadets, and guides. Freed from the burden of The Junior School, the Senior School rapidly developed. The U.H.S. was "at last adequately housed and better equipped than at any previous time in our history" (1927 Magazine.) To begin with, the Senior Section had ten teachers on the staff. In 1927 the school had its first head boy -L. Hatch and Head Girl - Bridget Rose.

On the 23rd November, 1927, the Honourable Mr. H. U. Moffat, C.M.G., the Premier of Rhodesia, came to Umtali to open Athlone House. The Premier was received by Mr. C. Eickhoff and was introduced to the Schools Advisory Committee. Mr. Moffat in his address proclaimed, "that the children today were the ladies and gentlemen of to-morrow." (1927 Magazine).He went on to speak "of the Government's task of catching up arrears, especially of educational buildings," (1927 Magazine) throughout Rhodesia. He made note of the development in educational matters in Umtali and particularly referred to the increase in the number of pupils since 1913. Thereupon the Premier declared Athlone House formally open. After the conclusion of his speech the Head Prefect, Bridget Rose, presented the Premier with a silver key. Mrs. Moffat " then well and truly planted a fine specimen of the auricaria cunninghami (Moreton Bay Pine), a present from Mr. John Norris, of Devonshire Farm." (1927 Magazine) The building was then inspected.

The actual establishment was a double storey building, had accommodation for 60 boarders, stood on " twelve acres of ground on the hillside to the east of the town, and commands a magnificent view." Only one thing had been erased from the original plans. The recommended "peep holes between the prefects' studies and the prep room" were not included — "it being thought very objectionable to encourage such a system in any school!" (Minutes, S.A.C., 4th July, 1927) When the girls occupied this hostel in 1928, they were terribly relieved that they no longer had the cramped Darlington state of affairs - whereby the prep room was also used as a dining-room. With the completion of this hostel, the U.H.S. was finally housed inside its own boundaries and did not maintain any outside connections. But with the influx of boarders, coming from P.E.A. (Mozambique) and even as far afield as Nyasaland,(Malawi) a new junior hostel was envisaged in the not too distant future.

As early as 1928, the proposal for the division of the U.H.S. into separate Boys' and Girls' Schools was placed beneath the magnifying glass and examined in every detail. One member of the S.A.C. claimed "it is considered desirable that the boys and girls at the U.H.S. be taught in separate buildings and by teachers of their respective sexes." (Minutes, S.A.C, 2nd July, 1928.) Even the Director of Education was approached and asked for his view on the subject of division at an early date However, he opposed the idea. This separation into the specific sex groups was wished for "in order that they may be given the education appropriate to their particular walk in life - work for boys, marriage for girls."

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(Minutes,S.A.C.1928) It would have been unwise from an educational and financial point of view, to split the school at this stage. The co-educational system supplied no disadvantages but led to academic rivalry between the sexes, which improved the general standard of work.

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Photo 35
The Opening of the Beit Hall in 1931

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Photo 36
The School Staff, November, 1927
Back Row: Miss Smith - Miss Webb - Miss Morgan - Miss Weaver - Miss Caswell
Standing: Mr. Speight - Mr. G.M. Miller - Mr. R.S. Brown - Miss S. Maritz - Miss Crockett
Miss Waite - Mrs. Mortimer - Miss M. Maritz - Mr. J.P. Hutchinson - Mr. A. Middlemas Mr. A.C. Kuun
Sitting: Mr. J.H. Freeman - Miss Yockney - Mr. H.G. Livingstone - Mr. A. Ball
Mr. H.F. Edmonds

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Photo 37 A
Opening of Athlone House in 1927 by the Hon. H.U. Moffat

Photo 37 B
The Old Hospital which later became Kopje House
(The picture was taken some time during the 1920's)

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SCHOOL LIFE

Discipline, during the twenties, had become much sterner. The pupils' predecessors who had attended the school during the nineteen tens had been a product of the closing of the Victorian era Therefore they were, through discipline at home, brought up better behaved than their successors, and there was no need for strict disciplinary measures within the school. Then also, these earlier pupils were totally absorbed in the school, as it was virtually the only interest they had outside the bounds of home. Entertainment was created by these pupils among themselves By the twenties pupils were distracted from total attention to the schoo1 by many other outside activities - such as the bioscope, where they were no longer required to entertain themselves. Therefore the 'modern' pupils were more severely punished for neglecting to do prep or for misbehaving in class. For example, lines had to be copied from the bible or even more odious, one had to write and work out the results of all 'the odd numbers between 100 and 1,000, when multiplied by 51. The sweet to this pill came in 1927 when the school bioscope was inaugurated.

The longed for cricket and rugby grounds at Chancel1er House were, by 1927, far from completion. Little work having been "done as there were very few prisoners available. " (Minutes, S.A.C, 7th Feb., 1927) With not enough funds to support a large African Staff, cheap labour in the form of convict working gangs was obtained to attend to any ground developments. The fields were later finished towards the end of the year by a gang of paid workers. In the realm of sport, the 'School played its first inter-school cricket match in March, 1928, against Prince Edward, losing outright. After a second defeat in November, The Rhodesia Herald said in a report on the match - "all their batsmen had style though they lacked power. Their bowling had plenty of variety and their fielding was slightly better than that of the Salisbury boys." The first inter-school victory occurred in 1929, when the U.H.S. beat St. George's on the first innings, in a friendly match. The U.H.S. knocked up 194 for 7, to which the Saints replied with 49 and 76 for 2. The first school century came in 1929, when Taylor cracked up 135 not out, in the school's triumph over the Old Boys. (U.H.S., 368; O.B.'s, 132 and 111.) In March, 1930, Prince Edward's flag was lowered at last and, as a result, the U.H.S. knew "what it is like to capture wickets in Matabeleland," when it met Plumtree in the inter-school cup cricket final. Against P.E., the school amassed a total of 201 runs to which P.E. replied with 123 all out. The school achieved the then unique feat of travelling 535 miles to play Plumtree, but was sadly beaten despite the distance covered, the scores being, Plumtree, 221; U.H.S. 96 and 96.

Girls' Hockey practices were held twice weekly, on Mondays and Thursdays. In 1930, a hockey field was constructed within the school grounds at Athlone. The U.A.A. grounds had previously been used for practices. For the first time, in 1930, the hockey team won a victory when they beat the town ladies by 5 goals to 3. Whereas, in 1928, this team had only played two games, both against Umtali Ladies, by 1931, the hockey team played 7 matches; (none inter-school) - won four and lost three.

Their defeats included one from a game against the boys. It is from this date—the boys thinking " themselves professional hockey, players," (1931 Magazine) - that they accepted this as a form of sport.

The School Tennis Championships date from 1928, due to the fact that three new courts had recently been built at Athlone. The Senior Singles Title went to Anna

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Louw, who, coupled with Helen Scott, also took the Senior Doubles final. Tennis came in for more than a little criticism in 1929 — by an ' Onlooker,' whose writings appeared in the magazine. Few players had acquired a forearm drive, while only some had developed a backhand drive. Footwork was all wrong, as was the use of body weight. There was "too much knee-bending. A wall to play against is what is needed! "The girls need not have despaired; there were words of consolation as well. It was said, however, that most girls managed to throw "the ball up well for the service." It must not be forgotten that, it was not until 1929 that the girls had a proper games mistress - Miss E. M. Clarke. Apart from the usual matches against the town teams, the girls, in 1930, played and beat the Convent. The tennis teams were entered as a club in the inter-club- matches of the Manicaland Tennis Board in 1931. The school came third to Hillside and the Park Clubs. Five teams participated. This year, also, saw a team entered for the first time in the Inter-School Tennis Championships. The team was captained by Ruth Tapson and was eliminated in the first round. Another venture the girls started was that of cricket, a sport in which they hoped, in time, would produce a strong girls' team. The team was captained from behind the wickets by J. Tapson. When, in 1930, they played the Girls High School, Salisbury, (the girls' premiere inter-school game) "an overwhelming defeat" was suffered, of which it seemed "wiser to say nothing." (1930 Magazine) The girls later won a game against the Old Boys, who played left-handed. At this time the Deportment Girdle system appeared, six girls being awarded them. However, " the deportment, although improved still leaves much to be desired."(1930 Magazine)

The U.H.S. entered upon a new chapter in its history, "when an assemblage of past pupils foregathered to pay tribute to their Alma Mater, and to fight all over again the battles of the past." (Rhodesia Advertiser, Nov. 2nd, 1928) This was the first Inaugural Reunion of the Old Boys' Association, which had been formed in December, 1927, with an initial membership of 60. Mr. Livingston was appointed President of the association. On October 26th, 48 gathered "to pledge a new allegiance to the school" and into the bargain enjoy an excellent repast. The Reunion was attended by members of the 'S.A.C., plus a number of teachers. After the dinner, there was a round of ''felicitous speeches, all in the main congratulatory to the U.H.S. and to the Old Boys." (R.A. 2/11/1928) On the 27th, a dance was held at the Cecil Hotel. "The dancing was conducted to the strains of the Musical Madcaps Orchestra, which singularly enough included some past pupils," and what they "lacked in rhythm (this was their first public appearance) they more than made up for in volume and infectious melody. It was an altogether merry function." (R.A. 2/11/1928) On the next day the Past versus the Present Pupils cricket match, the Past, quite understandably, lost. On 3rd March, 1931, the Old Girls of the High School came into their own with the formation of an Old Girls' Association; this was affiliated to the Old Borderers during the same year.

In July of 1929, four of the boys went on the Overseas Tour of Rhodesian School boys. They visited many famous towns and districts in England, including: Manchester, Birmingham, The Lake Districts, Edinburgh, Stonehenge, Salisbury, London and Bath. They were even received by the Prince of Wales at St. James Palace. The baggage labels for this tour were designed by a pupil, Helen Cooper, and were described as being "most effective."

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A BRAVE EXPERIMENT

A unique election in August, 1929, saw the installation of 14 members of the school on a School Council. The 14 were elected by ballot as house representatives: two from Chancellor 'A' and 'B', Stanley, Moffat and Milner, with Athlone having four members. The first election campaign "was not very vigorous. "With their own Parliament, pupils had "Visions of a new and ideal school. No homework, no examinations, freedom of the pupil" (1930 Magazine) But, alas, for them, the "millennium" did not come. President of this council was Mr. Livingston, while a member of staff acted as Advisory Secretary. The body was to be purely advisory and was to be without any executive authority. The constitution of the Council was as follows: "It shall be the duty of the School Council to advise the Headmaster and Staff on all matters appertaining to pupils' activities in the school and to assist in every way possible to ensure the efficient running of these activities." The council was to be responsible to its electors - in other words to the total pupil population. In financial matters the council was, more or less, to have a free hand. The estimate of £153 for the financial year August, 1929, to August, 1930, was accepted by the Council. This estimate was put before the council on the condition that there was no deficit by the end of the financial year. Of this estimate, £115 was divided amongst the various sports; £28 was allocated to Cubs and Scouts, Magazine and Library; the remaining £10 was carried over as a reserve for the next financial year. Under the guidance of the Council, several subcommittees were formed to assist with the production of the magazine, the running of the library, to enquire into the financial position of the bioscope fund, and to make suggestions for its improvement. The council met on the first Wednesday of each month. Mr. Ball replaced Mr. Livingston as President of the School Council in 1930. For this year the major point of discussion on the agenda of the Council was the afforestation scheme. The school had been granted a plot of land near Athlone for this purpose, and the Council compiled the Articles of the U.H.S. Forestry Association. The School was to act as Trustees to this land, granted by the municipality, and was to plough and fence it. Many of the trees planted are still standing today. When the new principal arrived, he could not spare the time to preside over the council, as he was faced with the task of familiarising and establishing himself with the school. Therefore the council ceased to function in 1931.

The first parents' day was inaugurated in October, 1929 - thus marking "an epoch in the history of the School." (1929 Magazine) The event was defined as an "effort to explain the work of the school to the town and to invite the exchange of ideas between parents and staff." The pupils, of course, enjoyed this, making the most of their chances to pay to such an excellent gallery. All fields of school work were on display and there was a splendid response with the classrooms and grounds being thronged by parents, who expressed "their delight and amazement at the high standard of the work of the school. "A number of the senior classes" postponed certain of their daily lessons until the afternoon, when parents and others interested were able to make a tour of the classrooms and see the scholars at work and to discuss with the teachers questions concerned with their education." (Magazine, 1929.)

This successful year, 1929, was only marred by the fact that the U.H.S. lost the services of Mr. H. G. Livingston, who during the Christmas holidays of 1929 was appointed to the position of principal at Milton Senior School. He had come to the school in 1922, and had taken " the tide at the flood and led us to fortune. He

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found us a weakling, a High School in name but not in fact. He leaves us with a name of which we are justly proud, and vigour and an ambition that will lead us to achievements we- prefer to think of rather than to express. "To quote further from the 1930 magazine, "it is impossible to express adequately our gratitude for all his work."

In December, 1930, Mr. B. B. Hill arrived in Umtali to assume the post of Headmaster of Umtali High School. Mr. Hill was born in Durham, England in 1889 and obtained a B.A. degree at Kings College, London. In an article in the 1931 Magazine, Mr. Hill stated "I should like to express my thanks and gratitude to my predecessor and his staff for the very fine school he and they have handed over to me. " He then went on to say "the most vital part of all our acts and thoughts in school should be the endeavour to seek truth, in the search for which we should always be honest and earnest and unprejudiced” - a policy which Mr. Hill kept closely to.

For the year of 1930, Mr. A. Ball was Acting Headmaster. The Umtali High School now had a total of 432 scholars, of which 155 were at the Senior School. The school orchestra made its first appearance, under the baton of Mr. H. P. Edmonds of the staff, when it led community singing at a concert rendered by the U.H.S. at the Cecil Hotel. Umtali was full of many budding artists, as a number of firsts were regularly gained at the annual Eisteddfod. In 1929, four first places were gained, in the arts and crafts section all by girls, much to the boys' long lived shame. Two of these firsts were gained by one pupil -Theresa Rose, - who was later awarded a Beit Grant tenable at the Durham School of Art, in 1930. Six firsts in the arts section were awarded to the school in the 1930 Eisteddfod.

The development of age-groups was furthered when the 1931 sports were divided into four sections - Senior, Middle, Junior ' A' and ' B'. This was done to give the smaller boys a chance - it had previously only been Senior and Junior. Chancellor ' A' and ' B' were now replaced with a house, named after the explorer, Doctor Livingstone.

Mr. G. M. Miller, who was in charge of the English Department in 1931, drew up the words to a song which was called "Ex Montibus. " Miss Heath, a music teacher at the school, put the words to music. This song, though not the first suggested for use as a school song is basically the same as that which is still sung today.

TWO NEW BUILDINGS

Two very memorable events occurred during the course of 1931. First, on the 13th June, the Premier, The Hon. H. U. Moffat, C.M.G., opened the new Junior Hostel (later called Eickhoff). Large numbers of the public were present for this event. Mr. Eickhoff, Chairman of the S.A.C., introduced the Premier, and went on to speak of the necessity for the new hostel. With both Chancellor and Athlone overflowing, it was intended to use the hostel for both Junior boys and girls, thus relieving the situation. Mr. Moffat opened his speech by commenting on the beautiful site of the hostel. He then referred to the government's education policy, by which half the loan funds allocated to public building had been spent in connection with educational purposes. He added that the government was carrying out a notable experiment by employing native girls for the first time as domestics in this hostel. He then spoke on the future careers of pupils and in closing, gave them his very best wishes and "trusted that God's blessing might

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rest on this building." (Rhodesia Advertiser, 18th June, 1931) Later, Mrs. Moffat planted a Northern Pine in front of the building. The new hostel was situated between Athlone and the Senior School, and is adjacent to the latter. The building is double storeyed and is in the main 'H' shaped. It is faced with a broad veranda and balcony.

s yet, the school had no Hall, but in early 1929, the Beit Trustees came forward and offered to build the U.H.S. a Hall. It was this Beit Hall that His Excellency, The Acting Governor, Sir Murray Bisset, K.C.M.G., opened on the 27th July, 1931. Mr. Eickhoff welcomed His Excellency and Lady Bisset, and then went on to pay tribute to the generosity of Alfred Beit. He was " a man of high ideals, and Rhodesia today is reaping where Alfred Beit so abundantly sowed; and I can think of no more fitting a memorial to such a man than a building connected with an institution, the main purpose of which is to teach successive generations how to live." (Magazine, 1931)
"Sir Murray Bisset congratulated the School and the town on coming into possession of such a fine building, and coupled with his congratulations, an expression of gratitude to the donors, the Beit Trustees, and of admiration for Alfred Beit." (Magazine, 1931) In summing up, The Headmaster, Mr. B. B. Hill, stated that this "was a red letter day in the annals of the School;" "a dream had come true." The new Hall was included in the principal School block, so forming the quadrangle. The Hall was built in the English Renaissance style and "is impressive in its severe dignity and simplicity." The interior of the Hall is panelled to a height of 7ft. 6ins. has the usual stage, and large gallery at the back of the Hall. Ample dressing room accommodation was provided for, while at the front of the main hall, there is the entrance hall, cloakroom, offices and stairs to the gallery.
The Hall naturally became the scene of much activity - "the annual concert, school bioscope, girls' physical training, the Girl Guide and Scout headquarters, the Old Borderers' Re-union meetings, and the senior term and public examinations have already found it their proper venue." (Magazine, 1931) In fact it was wondered "how we did without it." Morning Assembly received an "added meaning and force," as well.

The opening of the Beit Hall brought to a close an era of development and consolidation. The school had every justification to be proud of itself.

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CHAPTER IV

QUIET PROGRESS 1932-1939

In a book "African Angelus" written by Father Martindale in 1933, the following reference to Umtali occurs: "Buildings like the new Beit Hall in the local school are really fine. Serene and simple and decorated in creams, warm browns, and touches of deep blue, the layout of that school is free and generous; and I like it as I did much else in the gay little town."

Father Martindale was not the only distinguished person to take an interest in the School during the period 1932 to 1939. In 1932 several visitors were received. His Excellency the Governor and Sir James McDonald (of the Beit Trustees) visited the School and Professor Fryer and Miss Elsie Hall both gave music recitals in the Beit Hall. It should also be noted that in 1932 the Beit Trustees presented a large portrait of Sir Alfred Beit which was hung up in the Hall to remind the pupils of his invaluable services to Rhodesia.

No one of note visited the School in 1933, but 1934 was to prove to be a busy year. In March Prince George paid a visit. Arriving at the School he inspected the Cadets, Guides, Scouts, Cubs and Brownies who paraded in front of the Beit Hall, and the rest of the School who had also assembled there. He gave a short speech about the future of the present boys and girls and, as a result of his visit, a holiday was given to the whole school. The Prime Minister, Mr. Godfrey Huggins was guest of honour during the weekend of the Annual Speech Day and Sports Meeting and 'Sir George Cary visited the School in May. Sir George, a Lieutenant-General with an impressive war record in a number of countries, gave two lantern lectures on the 1820 Settlers and the Sixth Kaffir War. According to the 1934 copy of "The Borderer" these lectures were of great use to the history pupils of the Senior School.

Other visitors during 1934 included His Excellency the Governor, Sir Cecil Hunter Rodwell, who gave a lecture on the South Sea Islands and Dr. F. G. Cawston who spoke on the prevention of bilharzia. The following year the new Governor and Lady Stanley visited the School, and His Excellency gave a short address in the Beit Hall.

Sir Herbert Stanley was to honour the School again in 1936 by attending Speech Day and the first performance of the School Play, "The Admirable Crichton." Another interesting visitor during the year was the Hon. the Countess of Verulam who spoke to the Staff and school on the treatment of animals. Mr. B. B. Hill, introducing Lady Verulam, mentioned an interesting fact that was not generally known, that the late Earl of Meath, Lady Verulam's father, was the founder of Empire Day.

In April, 1938, Sir Herbert Stanley visited the School again in his capacity as Governor. This time he came to present the Headmaster, Mr. B. B. Hill, with the Scout Medal of Merit in recognition of his services to the Scout movement. His Excellency also inspected a Guard of Honour of local Boy Scouts and Cubs and gave them a short address. In the same month Lieut.-Col. T. E. Robins, D.S.O., presented the prizes at the Annual Speech Day.

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SPEECH DAY

Lieut.-Colonel Robins attended the Seventh Annual Speech Day. The first was held in April, 1932, when the Director of Education, L. M. Foggin, Esq., presented prizes and certificates won by pupils during the previous school year. In the evening of the same day, the senior pupils presented Sir J. M. Barrie's "Quality Street" and the next day the annual Sports were held. It was a very full and successful weekend, all the functions being attended by large gatherings of parents and the public.

The first Speech Day was run along similar lines to that of today. It began with the Headmaster's report, during which Mr. Hill referred to various School activities. He mentioned in particular the forestry work being done in the School grounds, some five hundred trees having been raised from seed and planted out. He also complimented the old pupils on the increased vigour of their association. Afterwards the Director of Education rose to speak. Mr. Foggin congratulated the School on an excellent year's work and went on to speak of the provision made for bringing educational opportunity within the reach of every Rhodesian child, no matter how remotely situated.

Mr. Foggin attended the Speech Day again in 1933 but on this occasion Mr. H. Chapman, General Manager of the Railways, presented the prizes. Earlier in the day Mr. Chapman had unveiled the School War Memorial. This memorial which was placed in the vestibule of the Hall had been presented by the Old Borderers' Association. The present day Memorial Service follows the order of the early service virtually unchanged.

The Prime Minister, Mr. Godfrey Huggins, consented to be the Guest of the School during the week-end of the Annual Speech Day and Sports Meeting in 1934. Mr. Huggins, who expressed how pleased he had been in accepting the invitation, presented the various prizes, certificates and trophies. In a letter of thanks, written in his own hand to Mr. B. B. Hill. Mr. Huggins complimented the staff and pupils of the School on the work that had been done.

Mr. Foggin presented the prizes again in 1935 and in 1936 the Governor, Sir Herbert Stanley, honoured the School by presenting the prizes. Special mention was made during the Headmaster's speech of Philip Joubert who had been awarded a Rhodes scholarship and was considered one of the best classical scholars the country had produced. The Governor, in reply, thanked the Headmaster, staff and pupils of the School for the kindly welcome which they had accorded him and remarked that they could be justly proud of their School. His Excellency considered the School motto, "Ex Montibus Robur," a most apt one and also one that required much living up to.

In conclusion, His Excellency, as a mark of his appreciation, offered a prize for the, best poem written by a pupil during the year, and the prize was won jointly by three people - T. Y. Louw, Maurine Gates and J. M. H. Farquhar.

On Speech Day in 1937 the Headmaster remarked that the outstanding feature of organised games at the School in 1936 had been the successful amalgamation of the boys' and girls' houses to form Livingstone, Moffat and Stanley. Fairbridge House was introduced the following year.

At Speech Day 1938, Mr. Hill referred to the separation of the Senior and Junior

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Schools and expressed his pleasure in the appointment of Mr. J. P. Hutchinson as Headmaster of the latter. Then, after Mr. Hutchinson had outlined the policy of the Junior School, Lieut.-Colonel Robins spoke on how fortunate the children of Rhodesia were to live in a young and wonderful country and what great opportunities were provided for them by the generosity of the Beit Trust and other benefactors of the country. He indicated several ways in which full advantage could be taken of these opportunities both in this country and overseas. Prior to the ceremony Lieut.-Col. Robins had inspected a Guard of Honour composed of School Cadets. The Scouts, Cubs, Guides and Brownies were also on parade.

A feature of the Speech Day in 1939 was the renaming of the junior hostel by the Mayor, Councillor G. W. Chase. As a tribute to the valuable work done by Mr. Charles Eickhoff on the School Advisory Board for many years, the building was named "Eickhoff House." In replying Mr. Eickhoff likened the growth of the High School to the old stage which used to run between Bulawayo and Umtali. The drivers were always urging their mule teams from one stage to the other until they reached their goal. The growth of the School was very similar. They had gradually, step by step, added to the School, and it had reached, its present state from one house which used to be at the north end of the town. This building had become totally inadequate for housing the increasing number of boys and girls, and in time they had secured Chancellor and Athlone Houses. Soon these were overflowing as a result of the School's rapid growth and so the junior hostel had been built and had been opened by his friend, the Hon. Howard Moffat, when he was Prime Minister. However the School, he continued, needed still more accommodation.

Tribute was also paid to another old stalwart of the school in 1939, Mrs. "Dick" Tulloch who was 79 years of age at the time. She was made an honorary member of the Old Borderers' Association at their annual meeting. The only other honorary member, incidentally, was Mr. Charles Eickhoff.

EXAMINATIONS AND BURSARIES

The School did very well academically during this period. At the end of 1931 Philip Joubert was awarded a Beit Bursary on gaining First class honours in his Matriculation. Neville Freeman gained Second Class and Helen Cooper and Dorothy Casson, Third Class honours. Helen Cooper, who gained the Matriculation prize in Art, was one of several fine artists in the School at this time. Others included Nancy Stevens, Doreen Moore (now Mrs. Whitmarsh-Gray and a well-known Umtali artist) and Jasmine Gordon-Forbes (who became a lecturer in Art).

In 1932 the Selous Memorial Scholarship which was awarded to the candidate who obtained the highest percentage mark in any science in the Junior Certificate examination, was won by George Orner. Muriel Bull headed the list in the Senior Beit Scholarship Examination and Edward Levy, George Mackenzie and Henry Olivier gained Class One in Matriculation. The Caledonian Society also offered four scholarships: one for the pupil doing best in the Junior Certificate Examination (won by Stuart Jams), one for the best pupil ex-Standard 5, Junior School to enable him to enter the Senior School (won by John Jarvis), a special one for class position (won by Jean Bisset and Emily Mackenzie) and an open bursary (won by Albert Pilgrim).

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In 1933 Dorothy Rose who gained a Class one in Matriculation was awarded a Beit University Scholarship (£100, tenable for three years) Kenneth Cocker and Doreen Edmonds were awarded Municipal Bursaries and Jean Bisset, Gwendoline Brent, Stuart Jarvis, Evelyn Farquhar, John Mackenzie and Donald Baker, Caledonian Bursaries.

In 1934 the School gained extremely good results. Muriel Bull, Jacobus Joubert, Albert Pilgrim and Stuart Jarvis were awarded Beit Bursaries. Stuart Jarvis was also awarded a Government Bursary as was George Orner. Orner also gained a Beit Engineering Scholarship while Nancy Stevens won a Natal Art Scholarship. George Neaves, Amy Eeeleston and Stephen Phillips gained Municipal Bursaries and Emily Mackenzie, Isobel Donaldson, John Crawford, Jean Bisset and Ronella Koster, Caledonian Bursaries.

As if serving as a contrast, results in 1935 were very much under average, except in the Junior Certificate Examination. In 1936 Ronella Koster and L. de Bruijn gained Class One honours in their Matriculation and this was repeated by A. Myburgh (gaining a Beit University Bursary) and Barbara Taylor (a Government University Bursary and a Rhodes University College Entrance Bursary) and C. de W. van Rensburg in 1937. A. Tapson who gained a Class Two was also awarded a Beit University Bursary. B. du Preez and Helen Ritchie gained First class passes in 1938

It was decided, however, after the results of the Fox Commission (1936) that the Southern Rhodesian Junior Certificate and South African Matriculation would gradually give way to Cambridge School Certificate and Higher School Certificate. The Cambridge examinations were chosen because the grouping of subjects was more elastic and there was better provision for the interests of girls. A transition period was necessary for reasons of School organisation but December, 1939, saw the last of the Joint Matriculation Board's examination in all Rhodesian Government Schools, and from then onwards South African Matriculation Exemption was obtained through the Cambridge School Certificate. Exemption requirements varied from time to time; but, broadly speaking Cambridge School Certificate passes and credits were regarded as the subject passes at School Leaving Certificate level and Matriculation level respectively, and the Joint Matriculation Board's regulations, which were concerned primarily with South African examinations, were applied, from year to year on that basis.

At this point it may be noted that bursaries for Rhodesian students proceeding to Universities had been awarded on the results of the South African Matriculation examination. With the dropping of this examination new arrangements had to be made. Beginning in October, 1939, a special bursaries examination was set up by the Cambridge Syndicate and taken by pupils in Form V and Form VI in Rhodesian Schools and also by Matriculation candidates in private schools in South Africa. Increasing difficulty arose, however, over selection for admission to overcrowded faculties in South African Universities, and this necessitated setting up a Panel of Examiners from 1943 onwards. But the schools were uneasy - two post-certificate examinations in the final two years of the course were more than they could handle effectively and thus a change was effected where by University bursaries and scholarships were awarded on the results in Higher School Certificate (for pupils in Rhodesian Schools), and South African Matriculation (for Rhodesian pupils .Is attending private schools in South Africa).

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A three-year Modern Course was also instituted. This course furnished a more satisfying and effective form of education for a large number of boys and girls. Children, whose vocations would not require that they should pass a test such as is required and designed by the formal external examination, could therefore more profitably spend their time in occupations of a less academic nature. Syllabuses were drawn up to the requirements and capabilities of the child, so that even the less gifted pupils came into the scheme of education which in itself improved their interest level. The teacher was bound by no hard and fast scheme of work, but searched and explored to find through what channels of interest he could best guide and direct the child. Mr. B. B. Hill maintained that it was found particularly among younger children, "learning" could be best acquired by use of hand and eye; "learning by doing," and so work of this nature was encouraged amongst the activities of the school - handwork, housecraft and arts and crafts.

In the Modern Course external examinations were done away with but the School itself set its own examinations. Under the course there was a more practical bias in all subjects and even Mathematics, History and English were designed to be in keeping with the general principle.

EXTRA-MURAL ACTIVITIES

On the non-academic side the School made great progress. The Athletics team probably captured the limelight when they won the Inter-School Sports (the Administrator's Shield) at Bulawayo in 1935. The Acting Headmaster, Mr. A. Ball, stated at Assembly that it was the successful result of ten years work in raising the standard of athletics in the school. He also paid a tribute to Mr. D. M. Miller who had been the Athletics master for the past few years.

Both cricket and rugby showed much improvement as more Town and Inter-School games were arranged. A new cricket field and a cricket pavilion were built in 1935, all the costs for the latter being kindly paid by Mr. Eickhoff.

A gymnastic shed was opened in 1934 and it soon proved to be a great boon for both boys and girls. Orthopaedic gymnastic apparatus was installed in the gym; this apparatus was to assist to remedy "flat chest," a common defect caused by relaxation of the muscles of the chest due to the hot weather.

Boxing which was an optional sport became very popular and there were 142 entrants for the Inter-House tournament in 1934.
There was also an increase of interest in hobbies during this period particularly in 1938, when a number of clubs were formed. The Music Club was founded by Miss Lovett and Miss Barringer and early meetings mainly consisted of discussions on various composers. A School Orchestra also became one of the School activities for those interested in music. The instruments used were percussion, piano, violin and piccolo. Two choirs were also started, one for those singers in Form III and above and one for the lower forms.

The Printing Club, was also formed, membership being only open to the boys. The first ambitious venture of the Club, which is probably surviving one in the School, was the programme for the School Concert in 1938. Other clubs formed during 1938 included the book craft, philatelic, folk dancing, woodwork and gliding clubs.

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Few building alterations were made during this period. The library, however, shifted around and work was started on building a new one in 1938. This project was opened early in 1940. Prior to this, in 1936, a classroom was used but this had to be shared with the commercial students, so in 1937 the library was housed m a room in the Manica Lodge. But even these quarters proved congested, and in 1938 £2,000 was donated by the Beit Trust for a Library and building started almost immediately.

The other main undertaking during this period was the Hostel for middle boys (Kopje House). The Old Hospital was renovated and put into use as a hostel in the first term of 1938

1932 to 1939 was a quiet period in the School's history and few changes were apparent. However this gave the School a chance to expand and improve itself in directions which had so far been somewhat neglected. As a result sport greatly improved, hobbies were encouraged and School Plays were of a vastly higher standard. By these improvements the reputation of the School was enhanced and these years proved an important foundation for the present day. Important events in the present School Diary, such as Speech Day, Sports Day and the Memorial Service, were so well organised at this time that there has been little change in the last thirty years. Other events such as the Old Borderers' Reunion were larger and more swinging than today. In 1932, for example, there were seventy-eight people, comprising Old Boys and their guests, at the dinner, while at the dance the following evening there were some seventy-five couples, all of whom seemed to be full of the "joie de vivre.

With the outbreak of the Second World War just around the corner, it is interesting to note what Mr. B. B. Hill said on Armistice Day, 1938. He told the School that War was not a glorious opportunity for boys to go forth and win shining laurels on the battlefield, but a ghastly nightmare which ended in ruin and desolation. He also stressed the fact that a war at that moment would have far more horrible results and that the civilian population would be the chief victims. Summing up the Headmaster said that the School should be thankful to the Grace of God and to the fine statesmanship which had so recently delivered them from another overwhelming disaster. Unfortunately he spoke too soon.

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CHAPTER V
THE WAR YEARS
1939-1945

On the 3rd September, 1939, The Second World War broke out. For the first few months the War had little effect on the school and life was practically normal, except that a number of pupils left school earlier than they would have done under ordinary circumstances. This unfortunately retarded the full development of Higher Certificate classes. There were, however, a few additional changes. The boys and girls of the school made every effort to raise money for War Funds. A Thrift Campaign was started and by this certain pupils of the school regularly gave small sums of money towards the War Funds.

It is also interesting to read of a fine gesture by the Old Borderers. In October, 1939, they held a fete with the profits originally intended to go towards building a club house and a sports field. However, after a committee meeting it was decided to devote all the proceeds to War funds of some kind or other.

The Old Borderers Association truly gave of its best to the War and by April, 1940, there were already over 100 former pupils in the Services. Next year, the number had risen to 202 and the following year to over 250. In April, 1943 there were well over 360 Old Boys serving in the Forces as well as a considerable number of Old Girls in the auxiliary forces of the Crown. By 1945 numbers had risen to over 500 in His Majesty's Forces of who 45 had given their lives. The School followed with pride the doings of their old comrades and on Speech Day in 1946 Mr. Hill announced the list of honours: 2 D.S.O.'s, 1 M.C., 7 D.F.C.'s, 1 American Navy Air Medal, 1 George Medal, 2 D.F.M.'s, 2 M.M.'s and 6 mentioned in despatches. However, he added, it was very difficult to keep an accurate and complete check on the awards.

The earliest awards were made to Geoffrey Cox, D.F.C., Kenneth Cocker, M.M., and Rex Lark and Frank Holman, mentioned in despatches. Frank Holman had also distinguished himself by bringing down eleven enemy machines but it was Charles L. Green who had the most distinguished war record. After joining the R.A.F. he had been commissioned in 1938 and had become a Squadron Leader in 1941. In June. 1942 he was mentioned in despatches and in January, 1943, was awarded the D.F.C. In July, 1944, then a Wing Commander, he was awarded the D.S.O., and three months later a bar to his D.S.O. when he helped to knock out 89 German tanks. He ended the war as a Group Captain.

Another Old Boy who distinguished himself was Wing Commander John Deall who was awarded the D.F.C. and the D.S.O. Incidentally Deall was also second in command of the Rhodesian contingent which went to London for the Victory Parade. Five other Old Boys also went with this contingent.

Mention must also be made of the deeds of two other Old Boys. On March 15, 1945, Captain Clive Coaton in Burma, was ordered to take a fighting patrol of two sections to Ohnde to find out if it was occupied by the enemy, and to establish himself on the high ground north-east of Ohnde. On the open ground near the village, the patrol came under enemy light machine gun and mortar fire from the feature to the north-east. Captain Coaton was wounded in four places and had four other casualties. Despite this he assaulted the enemy position and captured it, killing in the process three Japanese including an officer.

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Captain Coaton consolidated his position with his small force, evacuate his casualties and, though himself weak through loss of blood, remained with his patrol for about two hours until reinforcements reached him. Without his complete disregard to his own considerable injuries, the qualities of leadership and; devotion to duty, this operation would never have succeeded and subsequent operations in that area would have been very costly. Captain Coaton received the immediate award of the Military Cross.

Bravery in maintaining communications under fire earned an award of the Military Medal for Gunner Blake Goldsmith, of the South African Artillery. On the night of April 15/16, 1945, Gunner Goldsmith was responsible for the maintenance of a telephone line to give communications to an observation post for a night attack on Mount Caprara. Enemy shell and mortar fire was brought down throughout the night on the original start line of the battalion. As the area could not be by-passed, the wire passed through this line and was frequently broken. Well knowing that he had to enter and work in this area, continuously swept by enemy fire, Gunner Goldsmith nevertheless repeatedly returned to repair breaks as they occurred and was, responsible for the maintenance of vital communication. He continued this work under fire during the whole day of April 17 and the night of April 17/18.

The important events of the School calendar continued as previously. The only difference at the Annual Speech Day, for example, was a fairly short mention of how the Old Boys were faring in the War. Actually people who attended the Speech Day in 1940 would hardly have known that the war was already seven months old. The Headmaster announced that some one hundred boys from the School, (whose names appeared on the notice board) were in the forces and then made no further reference to the subject.
He spoke mainly on the educational side. He said that there were some 182 pupils on the Modern side in its fourth year, which was well established. He continued: Already many pupils on the Modern side had proved that they were doing well in their new careers and made special reference to a boy from this side, who had been accepted by the Public Services Board for a position in the Civil Service.
Turning to the Cambridge examination Mr. Hill said they had found that the school was well up to the standard required in most subjects with the exception of languages. The standard in the language papers, he continued, was obviously very high, but he considered that this was all to the good and he would not advise parents or pupils to give up these subjects in favour of subjects which might seem easier.

Mr. Hill made special mention of Louis Muggleton who was awarded a junior Engineering Scholarship and Jack Bowles, who in competition with the whole of South Africa had won a scholarship at the Durban Art School.

There was, however, one unfortunate feature on this occasion. Owing to expense, the School had with reluctance substituted certificates for prize books. With the money saved they had donated £5 to War Funds and £5 to the School Library. Mr. J. A. Barrow, Chief Inspector of Schools, presented the certificates.

Lieut.-Col., The Hon. E. Lucas Guest (the Minister of Mines and Public Works and Air) presented the awards in 1941. The Minister paid special tribute to Mr. B. B. Hill. He said: "By Mr. Hill's enthusiastic and untiring labours he had indelibly inscribed his name in the annals of Rhodesian education. The results obtained would have been commendable in normal times; that they should have

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been achieved when the Empire was passing through the most difficult period of its existence made them even more commendable. "Incidentally the best results in the Cambridge School Certificate for the past year were achieved by D. J. Orner, M. G. Beckley and J. C. Groom who all gained six credits.

The following year these results were improved upon by J. S. Ball and C. C. Kerr who each gained seven credits. The Headmaster made a very long speech in 1942 mentioning that war had still had little effect on the progress of the School. He spent part of his speech explaining the Saturday Morning School. In the past boys had attended cadet parade on Saturday morning from 8 to 9 a.m. and then boys and girls attended extra classes from 9 a.m. onwards. However, because of the general feeling amongst the Inspectors that the teaching time was too short these sessions were held from 8 to 10.30 a.m. This plan was introduced at the beginning of 1942.

During his speech the Headmaster also mentioned the Air Cadet Unit which had been formed. This unit aimed at giving a preliminary training in Air Force work and making the boys "air minded." Meetings were mainly in the form of lectures but the Unit received much assistance from Mr. C. H. Perrem and the Park River Training Camp.

The Speech days of 1943 and 1944 slipped past quietly but in 1945 Mr. H. G. Livingston was guest of honour. Having been Headmaster some fifteen and a half years ago it was interesting to hear of his impressions. Mr. Livingston was especially pleased to see Mr. Eickhoff, a very old friend, and Mr. Condy who had done so much for schooling in the country. Continuing he said he had been impressed by the up-to-date equipment that the school possessed. He then spoke on the future of the children present and hoped that many would become farmers, teachers and nurses. When summing up, Mr. Livingston said that living as he did in Salisbury he had often seen Umtali scholars passing through on their way back to school and he had been struck by the fact that he had never seen anyone wearing the Umtali colours badly dressed or behaving in any but a most correct manner.

One event in the school's year which did have more impact was obviously the Armistice Service. This was held every year during the war, the numbers on the Roll of Honour increasing alarmingly on each occasion.

Concerts and plays continued without being affected in any way by the War. In 1940 the school produced "The Rivals" and held two evenings of Concert and Dramatic Entertainment. Incidental music at these was provided by the School Orchestra.

In 1941 "H.M.S. Pinafore" was produced. It is interesting to note that one of the leading parts was played by a master, Mr. M. A. Davies, who often acted in School plays and also sang at the School Concert in 1941. The leading lights at these concerts and plays amongst the pupils were Stathis Deftereos and Tony Eliades.

In fact during the War Years there were more concerts and plays than at any other time in the School's history. At this point mention must also be made of the outstanding programmes produced by the Printing Club. This Club also made a 38-page Hymn Book which was said in the Umtali Advertiser to be as good as a professionally done job.

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As would be expected little work was done on the buildings around the school because of the expense. However, in February, 1940, the Beit Library was opened by His Excellency, the Governor, Sir Herbert Stanley. Sir Herbert and Lady Stanley arrived by train from Salisbury in the morning and were entertained to tea in the gymnasium by the Headmaster, Mr. Hill, the Staff and School Prefects, before they proceeded to the Beit Hall where pupils and members of the public were assembled. The Headmaster then told the School that nine years ago the Beit Hall held been opened by the then acting Governor, Sir Murray Bissett. Since that day the Hall had been in use continuously and had proved of incalculable benefit to the School. Today they had to thank the Beit Trustees for their most generous gift of a library and he could assure the Trustees that if the library proved as great a blessing to the School as the Hall had been, they would never regret their generosity. Mr. Hill then referred to the generous response made by friends and the School itself to an appeal for donations for the special purpose of augmenting the reference section of the library. Over £14 had been received, mostly in small amounts, from the staff and Pupils. The Railway Institute had contributed five guineas and the Municipality ten guineas. The School said Mr. Hui, was also most grateful to Mr. I. R. Evans for a donation of valuable mathematical books, which would be of great use when the Higher Certificate classes, which had just been inaugurated, were more fully developed. Another generous gift of a sum of money to provide pictures for the library had also been received.

Due to the War there was an increase of interest in other activities. Cadets was an obvious example and in order to widen this interest changes were introduced in the system of training. Special courses in signalling, Vickers Machine Gun and driving and maintenance were introduced. Here again, as in the Air Cadet Unit mentioned earlier, much assistance was given by the Park River Training Camp. The only setback the cadets received was the resignation in 1944 of Mr. Ball from his post of officer commanding cadets, a post which he had held for 21 years. Under his control, the cadets were always a fine body and he must been proud of the boys who passed through his hands and did so well in the War.

Many boys were also put through First Aid Courses. These courses, under the instruction of Mr. Waldeck and the St. John's Ambulance, continued throughout the War. The girls took a keen interest in the Red Cross Unit and, under the guidance of Miss Adlam, attended courses in Home Nursing and First Aid and sat examinations.

The boys and girls of the school pulled their weight in these difficult times. Due to this and with the encouragement of the town people most difficulties were overcome. The school children for example, must have felt bitterly disappointed at the stoppage of inter-school matches. However, visiting R.A.F. and Army teams and the Park River Training Camp made up for this and provided good opposition.

Sport, in fact was of a high standard during the War Years. The introduction of Physical Proficiency certificates undoubtedly had something to do with this. Both boys and girls made honest attempts to win these certificates and as a result became fitter and keener. This interest was passed on to other sports. Athletics was one which improved during the War. Mention must be made of P. Crzicic among the boys and N. Raynor and E. Ferreira among the girls as being outstanding athletes. Athletics also received a boost from many of the Town people who served as judges on Sports Day. It is interesting to note the following

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who did so: Messrs. A. Bain, D. Catsicas, J. Condy, C. Eickhoff, J. B. Lister and I.Wikson (the two MP's), Rev. E. Sells, Dr. J. Montgomery and Dr. J. Mitchell. These amongst others were and still are some of the best-known figures in Umtali.

The feeling of the School at the close of the war is best summed up in a speech by Mr. B. B. Hill at a Memorial Service in 1945: "We remember with proud thanksgiving those of this school who went forth to fight for the cause of freedom, many of whom, alas, have not come back. Those who gave their lives shall always be remembered. I often hear masters and Old Boys speaking of those who have gone as those who were still alive. They live in the hearts of us all and we remember them with love and affection as they went forth. The deeds wrought in this war by the Old Boys of this school will form a glorious page in the history of the School. They indeed have brought honour and glory to their own names and to the name of the School."

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CHAPTER VI

TOWARDS SEPARATION
1916-1953

It was in 1947 that Mr. B. B. Hill retired. He had served the school as Headmaster since 1931, during which time he showed outstanding leadership, and in 1947 he was awarded the O.B.E. for his work. On his retirement he accepted the post of Secretary of the Eastern Districts Development Association and Mr. A. D. Gledhill, M.A., took over as Headmaster. There were no other major staff changes except that Mr. K. M. Fleming was appointed Deputy Headmaster.

At this time the school wrote Cambridge School Certificate and Cambridge Higher School Certificate examinations. The passes for Cambridge ranged' from 27 in 1948 to 44 in 1952 and for Higher Cambridge from nil in 1947 to 19 in 1952. University Bursaries won at school included: 1946 — P. de Bruijn (Government £80 and Rhodes £20). W. Mills (Rhodes £20). 1947 - K. L. Anderson (Beit £80); F. M. Graham (Nyasaland £100,, Rhodes £20). 1948 - N. Middlemas. 1951 - L. Cranswick. The highlight was a Rhodes scholarship won by J Ball in 1947.

The school lost one of its greatest friends in December, 1947, when it heard of the death of Mr. Charles Eickhoff. It not only lost his impartial and sound advice but also his most wise and kindly interest. During the third term of 1948 it was decided that Wednesday afternoon School should displace the Saturday morning session. The change proved popular with nearly everybody and permitted a wide extension of organised hobby groups which rose to more than 20, most of which met on Saturday morning.

In 1946 hobby groups had been restricted to Scouts, Guides, Junior Red Cross and the Garden Club. The 1st Umtali Scout Group had been restarted in 1945 after it had closed down before the war, with 12 out of 60 boys under their Scoutmaster, Mr. Mackenzie. The Guide movement had also been restarted in 1945 when Miss Rossouw had taken over command from Mrs. V. Curtin who had retired in 1944, and by 1946 there were 25 Guides. The Junior Red Cross had been started in 1942 by Mrs. Bosnian and by 1946 Miss Slater was in command while Miss Harvie was in charge of the Garden Club, which boasted 17 members. Then in 1947 the Senior and Junior Debating Societies were formed and one debate was held: "This house disapproves of the present popularity of detective stories." In 1948 the Art Club, Scientific Society, Dressmaking Club, Dramatic Society, Dance Club and School Choir were all added to the available hobbies as well as many more minor hobbies. The Junior Dramatic Society grew in membership from 15 to about 60 in 1949, and two plays were put on, "The Knave of Hearts" for Speech Day, and "Zurika, the Gypsy Maid", in November. The Riding Club came into existence in the third term of 1949 and proved very popular with about 30 members enjoying a weekly ride.

The two woodwork groups remained filled to capacity and proved very helpful in making articles for the Parents' and Old Borderers' fete, scenery for "The Mikado" and crease markers and backs for seats in the Beit Hall gallery. Although there were no new hobby groups formed in 1950 the Junior Dramatic Society and Junior Choir combined to produce a nativity play, '"The Inn of the Star", in December, while two other plays, "Elizabeth Refuses" and "A Dog's

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Life", were presented before a meeting of the Parents' Association, The Debating Society and Riding Club continued to flourish.

VISITORS AND VISITS

It was one of the school's customs to hold the annual Speech Night in April after the athletic sports or just before them. In 1946 the third annual Service was also held on Speech Day, 5th April. The guest speaker was Group Captain C. F. Findlay, D.F.C., A.F.C., and after the Headmaster's speech he addressed the school, telling them that they were citizens of the future and that the future lay in their hands. He said a good citizen must have several qualities, leadership, courage and a passion for work. The following year the annual school service and prize; giving were held on 18th April. The athletic sports were held at Chancellor House on 19th April. At speech night in 1948 the address was given by Mr. T. S. Chegwidden, and as usual the night was concluded by the presentation of some plays. In his report for 1949 the Headmaster reviewed the school's activities for the year and stressed! the importance of school activity, whether in the classroom or out of it, being made to contribute to the broad development of the pupil as a future citizen. In his address, the guest speaker, Mr. E. C. F. Whitehead, the Minister of Finance, stressed the importance of character training. In 1950 Mr. T. I. F. Wilson, M.P., was guest speaker; and in 1952 the school was honoured to have Sir Godfrey Huggins, P.C., C.H., K.C.M.G., F.R.C.S., M.P., as guest speaker. Because numbers had risen so rapidly only senior pupils were included in the audience which listened with keen interest to his clarion call to democracy. The Headmaster reported a successful year of varied activity. Mr. G. A. Davenport, the Minister of Education, was guest speaker in 1953.

On 7th April, 1947, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth with Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret arrived in Rhodesia and as they were not going to visit Umtali and the Eastern Districts, the school went to Salisbury by train to see them. The first party consisted of girls and left on the 6th, the second party consisted of boys and left on the 8th.

The school had a day with a master golfer in 1948 when Bobby Locke visited Umtali. He gave a very interesting talk on his American tours, saying that the Americans let one know from the start that they are out to win, but if beaten they were real sports. He played a demonstration match with two amateurs, Du Plessis and Anderson, and halved the match.

His Excellency the Governor and Lady Kennedy paid a farewell visit in 1953 to the school. His Excellency again gave the school a holiday and in his brief farewell address Sir John urged the school to make their own the three great characteristics of Cecil John Rhodes: vision, unselfishness and courage.

In June four pupils were invited to attend a ball at Government House in July in honour of the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret. They thoroughly enjoyed themselves and were thrilled by the presence of the Royal couple.

A school fete was held in September, 1952, and proved to be a success from every point of view. An advertising campaign was launched three weeks before Fete Day and the climax was on Friday, the 19th, when a procession of 100 children on decorated bicycles paraded through town. Coinciding with this procession, Mr. Perrem flew over the town dropping leaflets advertising the fete. The Mayor., Mr.

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Harry Went, gave an address of welcome at 10.30. There were 14 stalls and the total amount taken at the fete was £881 10s. 4d.

NATIONAL HONOURS

Sport as usual continued to flourish during the period even though teams had to struggle a bit after the war. Rugby was still trying to get back on to its feet after the war in 1946, but the team steadily improved and in 1953 the First XV only lost to three other schools. In 1950, F. Kluckow, W. Raynor and G., Deftereos were selected to go on the Rhodesian tour. In 1952, Deftereos, Mannion and Forrest went on the tour of Border. The Rhodesian schools' side which toured the Eastern Transvaal in 1953 also included two Umtali boys, Forrest and Van der Merwe.

In 1945, Umtali was able to play in the inter-schools' tennis tournament again after an absence of six years. The school played excellent tennis and managed to win the championship for the first time. In the Rhodesian Junior Championships Daphne and Jane Timms reached the finals in the doubles and singles and Jane managed to beat her weary sister in the singles to become Southern Rhodesian Junior tennis champion. In 1947, L. de Villiers and F. Dreyer reached the finals in the doubles.

The overall standard of hockey was good and in 1947 the Ballantyne Cup came to Umtali for the first time in history. In 1949 the school won every match except one and Fern Dreyer played for the Orange Free State in the inter-provincial tournament in South Africa. In 1950 the first inter-schools' hockey tournament was held in Umtali over Rhodes and Founders and this was most welcome because travelling and arranging matches became increasingly, more difficult, especially in 1952 when the travelling fees were increased.

Cricket again proved popular and in 1946 Umtali beat Prince Edward for the first time in 10 years. In 1948 Deftereos and Amos were selected for the Rhodesian Nuffield team as were J. Drysdale in 1950 and E. Deftereos in 1952.

The athletic sports every year proved to be well attended and well run. In 1952 the athletic meeting had to be run over two days because of rain but in spite of this interruption eight records were broken.

The swimming galas were held in the third term and records continued to fall each year. In 1952 Umtali came third in the inter-schools' gala held in Bulawayo.

In March, 1946, at the fourteenth annual reunion of the Old Borderers' Association it was suggested that a fitting war memorial would be a small chapel and in June a committee meeting was held to consider this and three other proposals. It was decided that the most suitable would be a small, inter-denominational chapel erected in the school grounds. The estimated cost was £6,000. At the Annual General Meeting of the Old Borderers in 1947 it was decided to transfer £50 of the Sports Field Fund to the £1,000 which had already been raised for the War Memorial. A Gypsy Fete and Dance at the Drill Hall in November, 1947, was held in aid of the Chapel Funds.

In his speech day address in 1946, Mr. B. B. Hill made an appeal for donations towards the High School Sports Fund which was used to meet expenses not paid by the Government, such as sports equipment, books for the library and stage lighting. At the time of the appeal the staff had subscribed £87 and the parents £81. There was considerable expansion of facilities for cricket in 1947 and there were four

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groups of nets and two fields in regular use. However, an application by the Headmaster for Council assistance in preparing two cricket net sites and ploughing one rugby field was refused.
In his report at Speech Night, 1948, the Headmaster explained that it was necessary to launch an appeal for £2,000 to purchase equipment, to enable the school to maintain and improve games' facilities. The State Lottery Trustees opened the subscription list with a donation of £500.

SEGREGATION

Also in 1948 Umtali had a very worrying headache in regard to the new school sites. The question to be decided was where the new site should be and whether there should be an interchange of school sites, but the one definite point was that the school must be enlarged. The position was so bad that the Headmaster had to seriously think about refusing to enrol further pupils. However, in November provision was made for the building of two new hostels at the school at an estimated cost of £94,000. The proposed site for the new school was the Umtali University site.

At the beginning of 1949 there were about 430 pupils and to ease the teaching position two temporary prefab classrooms were completed in January. Sporting facilities were also enhanced by several additions: a new score box, new grass cricket nets were made available, a new rugby field was planted near Chancellor House and the Hillside tennis courts were taken over by the school.

In 1950 agreement was reached on future development of the schools in Umtali. Work was to begin on the erection of a primary school block of classrooms in the Chancellor House grounds. A secondary school hostel was projected on the new secondary school site on Circular Drive. At the same time as this was being built playing fields on the new site were to be levelled. Work began on the new senior school hostel on Wednesday, 23rd January, 1951.

The increase in numbers in 1951 made it necessary to have two extra forms. To house the additional forms two temporary classrooms were provided by the National Housing Board and erected by a contractor near the domestic science room.

The period 1946 to 1953 was an extremely difficult one for the school, especially the first few years as there was a great deal of reorganising to be done after the war. However, the staff and pupils managed to "pick up the pieces" and the school went from strength to strength in both academic and non-academic fields. In 1946 the school was not one of the very ''top dogs", but by 1953 they were winning most of their inter-school matches and more pupils were passing Cambridge and Higher Cambridge. The period had its highlights and it’s off days, but overall it was a successful one considering the difficulties facing the school in 1946.

As the year drew to a close the pupils slowly began to realise that, in a few months' time they would be parted and reluctantly they waited for the final assembly at which they would be together for the last time. But as the Headmaster said: "The young do not dwell on the past, they will remember 1953 at the Umtali High School but they will look ahead." The division in 1954 was an end but also a beginning - a double beginning.

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Photo 58 A
The opening of the Beit Library in 1940

Photo 58 B
The Governor Sir John Kennedy and Lady Kennedy visit in 1953.

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Photo 59 A
Mr. H. J. Theron, twenty-nine years of wise and
unstinting service.

Photo 59 B
Mr. Fleming, Headmaster and Miss Maritz, Bursar, outside the old School Office
which is now the Museum.

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CHAPTER VII

THE GIRLS GO ON ALONE
1954-1968

'After all women are a sex by themselves, so to speak."
Max Beerbohm

In 1954 the co-educational Umtali High School was divided into two schools, as the buildings were not large enough to house the ever-increasing numbers of children. There was much discussion about how to split the school. Some people wanted it separated into academic and technical schools, others wanted the formation of junior and senior sections, but it was finally decided that a new school would be built for the boys and the girls would remain at the old school.

Miss McLaughlin, who became Headmistress in 1954, was faced with the unenviable task jf settling the girls of the school into a new routine which excluded boys. She had begun her work with the Umtali High School as Headmistress Elect in 1953, when she arrived in Umtali to help the Headmaster prepare for the division in 1954.

After the division of the schools, the strict discipline, which had been maintained at the Umtali High School, was in no way relaxed. For example, the boarders were allowed out only on four Sundays each term whereas today they may go out with their parents or friends every Sunday. Form IV and above were allowed to visit town once a week but forms II and III were permitted to do so once a fortnight only while the forms 1's were restricted to one visit a month. Today the girls may go into town every week and the hostel prefects twice a week. On occasions the girls also travel out as a school to the cinema and to plays at the Courtauld Theatre.

The uniform did not change over this period. The girls wore a green gym tunic with a short-sleeved blouse which was changed for a long-sleeved blouse and a tie in winter. The sixth form girls wore the same uniform as the rest of the school until 1964 when they changed their tunics for dark green pleated skirts and their fawn-coloured felt hats for white boaters. They were allowed to wear black shoes and stockings instead of brown lace-up shoes and socks.

Once a year Open Days were held. This gave the teachers and parents the opportunity to meet each other. Classes were held as usual and the parents could see their daughters at work. Usually the various clubs, such as the Museum Club and Young Farmers' Club, displayed their year's work and some form of entertainment, such as country dancing, was performed during the mid-morning tea break. In 1959 Open Day gave way to Speech Day, when some person of renown was invited to give a speech to the school and parents. The first Speech Day was held in the Queen's Hall and the guest of honour was the Hon. B. D. Goldberg, the Minister of Education. Subsequent speakers were:-

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1960 The Secretary for Education, Mr. D. C. Ferrer
1961 Mr. J. A. C. Houlton
1962 The Right Reverend, the Lord Bishop of Mashonaland.
1963 Professor Milton, University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
1964 Mr. R. C. Bone, Principal of Bulawayo Teachers Training College
1965 Hon. A. P. Smith, Minister of Education
1966 Sir Athol Evans
1967 Mrs. Muriel Rosin
1968 Mr. K. Mew, Principal of Ranche House, Salisbury.

In addition to the above visitors, actors, travelling musicians and lecturers have frequently come to the school giving performances or addresses to the girls. Although not classed as travelling musicians or actors, the boys used to hold their concerts in the Beit Hall before the Gledhill Hall was built. In June, 1955, two musicians from the United Kingdom, Lady Gwendolen Herbert, pianist, and Miss Gertrude Collins, violinist, came to the school and played many well known classical pieces. Perhaps the most noteworthy person to grace the stage at the school was Henry Miles, the famous Shakespearean actor, who in 1956, performed extracts from some of Shakespeare's best known works.

In 1955 the Governor of Southern Rhodesia, Sir Peverill William-Powlett visited the school with his daughter. He addressed the girls and presented Hilda Krynauw with a certificate from the R.S.P.C.A. for bravery and humanity shown to animals. In 1957 the school was favoured with the presence of the Governor-General's wife, Lady Dalhousie and her eleven-year-old daughter, Lady Sarah Ramsay. His Excellency the Governor of Southern Rhodesia and Lady Gibbs paid a visit to the school in 1959.

Pupils received twenty-five and a half hours compulsory schooling per week but it was left to the individual school to decide how to allocate the correct number of hours into each week. Many schools extended their morning hours or shortened the breaks; others started afternoon school once a week and this was done at U.G.H.S. for second year academic forms and all higher forms, until 1960 when the whole school came back on Wednesday afternoons.

The school maintained a good percentage pass of all candidates entered in external examinations and bursaries were presented every year to eligible members of the sixth form. In 1960 the School wrote the Southern Rhodesia General Certificate Examination for the last time. The College of Preceptors' examination was written in its place the following year. This examination enabled the pupils to be examined in all school subjects, including Afrikaans, and so gave them the chance to acquire a certificate which would record success over a much wider range of studies than formerly. Miss B. B. P. Hay, acting Headmistress in 1961, stated, in her introductory notes in the school magazine, that if the certificate was wisely used, it could offer considerable advantages both to the pupils and prospective employers. In 1962, the sixth forms of Boys' High and Girls' High reverted to co-education for all post certificate work. The Cambridge School Certificate examinations were written for the last time in 1962 and the General Certificate of Education ' O' ' M' and ' A' Level examinations were written thereafter. The most outstanding ' A' level results for the whole period are those of Hendrina Viljoen, who was Head Girl - of the School in 1966. She gained an A grade in all her subjects which were English, Afrikaans, Latin and German. She also wrote English and Latin at 'S' Level and gained high grades for them both.

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DRAMA AND MUSIC

With the exception of 1958 and 1959, when there was no dramatic activity within the school, plays or concerts produced solely by the school or in conjunction with other Umtali Schools, have met with regular success. Points worth noting are that in 1962 the first combined U.G.H.S./U.B.H.S. production took place - the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta "The Mikado," and 1968 all three Umtali senior schools united to present Gilbert and Sullivan's "Iolanthe."

The first Inter-House Drama Festival was held in 1966, thanks to the generosity of a former head girl, Jeanne Norris. Her gift of £10 from her first month's salary, motivated a scheme which had been under consideration for some time, for it enabled the school to buy a trophy —a silver Rose Bowl - for first prize. To this Form III C added two further trophies - two copper trays - one to be the Best Actress Award and the other to be the Best Producer Award.

The most important musical groups within the school are, of course, the choirs - senior and junior. The Choir has attended most of the Eisteddfodau since 1959 and ever since 1960 when the choir obtained a first grade in the Senior Section the school has never looked back. At the Eisteddfodau the school has won the Mashonaland Cambrian Society Cup for the Senior Girls Choir Section in 1963, 1964 and 1968. In 1964 the Senior Choir tied for first place in the National Song Competition. In 1961, Margaret Annan, one of the school's soloists, achieved outstanding results at the Eisteddfod when she gained an honours certificate for each of her three songs and tied for the cup awarded to the "most promising young singer."

In December, 1959, the first carol service was held in the Beit Hall. No carol service was held in 1960 but instead; the choir took part in a combined school choir concert in the Queen's Hall. The senior and junior choirs also took part in following years in student concerts and parents' evenings, as well as performing at speech days and carol services.

In April, 1964, June Knight, together with three other Rhodesian pupils, was chosen at a public speaking competition to go on a four-week visit to Britain under the auspices of the Lions International. June later came first in an Umtali inter-school public speaking contest, the first of the annual occasions which have taken place since then.

The school has encouraged girls to partake in at least one hobby. In the earlier years perhaps the most enthusiastic crowd of girls was the group making up the Young Farmers' Club. This club was very active and one of the best in Manicaland. The girls were divided into groups - poultry, crop growing, horticultural, cookery and rabbit keepers. During the holidays a number of the Young Farmers used to attend an annual national camp which was held at such places as Norton, Gwebi Agricultural College and Henderson Research Station. Perhaps the most outstanding member of the club was Morag Scott who was chosen in 1956 to be one of the Rhodesian representatives to go on a tour of England. However, it became increasingly difficult to find leaders among the girls and livestock posed a problem during the holidays, and in 1958 the club was disbanded.

The, Debating Society, the oldest society in the school, has had its good times and bad. During some terms the support was excellent but at other times it was quite

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depressing.

The girls used the knowledge they gained at their clubs and hobbies to raise money for several projects, the main one being the swimming pool. Thus in October, 1955, a fete was held which realised £700. In July, 1956, a second fete was arranged in the school quadrangle which brought in £1,000. Then followed a variety of fund-raising ventures and by 1957 the school had raised £4,790. The State Lottery Trustees made a grant of £4,000 and the Ministry of Education one of £1,050.

Work now began on the pool which was to be 75 feet by 35 feet, and in the third term of 1958 it was officially opened by Mr. B. B. Hill, formerly headmaster of Umtali High School.

In 1962 money was raised to buy a micro-bus for the school, one of the activities being a Miss U.G.H.S. competition, which has since become a regular feature of the school year. Another project was for a prefects' study and in the culmination of two-and-a-half years of hard work was reached when the prefects of the school acquired their very own "den" in 1965.

Every year the prefect body has given useful tokens of remembrance to the school. Over the years they have managed to seek out and fill many small gaps which tended to be overlooked in the face of larger projects. Waste paper baskets were given for use in the library, two electric clocks and several cups have also been presented.
In 1963 monitors were introduced as the Sixth Form girls were having lessons at U.B.H.S., and in this year the monitors joined with the prefects in presenting a Bible for use at assemblies. In 1964 the "Dux House" Cup was introduced as a reward for the best all-round house, covering achievements in every sphere including sport, academic work and service to the school. The prefect body of 1965 gave the school the "Victrix Adversorum" Cup for a girl who had overcome some difficulty in her school year. Another electric clock was given, followed by Shumba, the fluffy lion, mascot of the school. In 1968 an inter-house netball cup was given to promote the sport in the future.

GROUNDS AND DEVELOPMENT

Today U.G.H.S. grounds are of great beauty due in no small measure to the foresight of both Miss McLaughlin and Miss Jelliman who, on the division of the schools, immediately began work on the grounds. The quadrangle was redesigned to its present simple lines and from the bush surrounding the school, smooth lawns and gay flower beds soon emerged. The hostel grounds were also improved under the guidance of Miss Clark and the untiring efforts of Mr. Marshall, the groundsman. The school and hostel grounds are appreciated by both girls and members of the public alike.

During this period new playing fields were opened and today the school boasts four hockey pitches, nineteen tennis courts, a basketball court and one permanent all-weather netball court and a swimming pool.

In the late fifties U.G.H.S. was experiencing crowded conditions as were other Umtali schools, and classes were being held in the museum, library, prefects' study and Eickhoff House prep room. The Beit Hall box office was being used as a music room. In 1960 a new science block was built and all pupils benefitted from this. An improvement in the crowded conditions was seen the following year, 1961, when a

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double-storey block of six classrooms was completed. In addition to the six classrooms there was a staff room and store rooms.

By 1956 boarding accommodation had become a problem and building was started on a new hostel which was to be called Tulloch, after Mrs. Dick Tulloch, who had started the first school in Umtali. The hostel was not ready until the second term of 1956 and during the first term, some girls were accommodated at Chancellor House and the others in the old Silver Oaks Hostel; this building, for obvious reasons, was called the "Rattery".

With the opening of the third hostel juniors and seniors were mixed; prior to this the seniors had gone to Athlone and the juniors to Eickhoff.

The period between 1954 and 1968 was first one of readjustment and then one of consolidation and expansion.

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CHAPTER VIII

TIGER KLOOF
1954-1959

A quote from the Editorial of the 1954 U.B.H.S. magazine sums up the general attitude of the boys at this time: "It is up to us for, though we are successors, we are founders also. We are the privileged."

When, at the end of 1953, the co-educational Umtali High School split up and the boys moved to Tiger Kloof, it was with mixed feelings that the pioneers of the boys' school contemplated the coming years. Life away from the girls (hitherto unknown) was not universally acclaimed, and was for many an uninteresting prospect.

The boys soon, however, began to realise the many advantages of being away from the girls, and even to applaud the move—especially since the bonds between the schools were never broken and a close friendship was retained with the girls' school.

Although the boys were in a sense banished from their familiar surroundings and set out to fend for themselves, they were compensated by the fact thae their Headmaster went with them. Mr. A. D. Gledhill, the Headmaster, was given a staff of 25 including a bursar, Miss S. M. B. Maritz, who also followed the boys to the new site. The deputy Headmaster, Mr. J. F. Gaylard, again was no stranger to the boys having been with the school since September, 1946.

Neither Mr. Gledhill nor Mr. Gaylard, however, had long stays at the school, although the work done by them in their periods of office was invaluable. Mr. Gledhill terminated his headmastership at the end of 1955 and officially retired from the Education Department on May 30th, 1956. Mr. Gledhill had a long and event filled association with the Umtali High Schools and has always been remembered for his burning determination to acquire a school hall. It is a fitting tribute that the School Hall has been named after him.

Mr. Gaylard also left the school at the end of 1955 on promotion to the headship of Prince Edward in Salisbury. He had always been prominent in all school activities and was regarded as an integral part of the school.

Once again the School was fortunate in gaining a replacement to Mr. Gledhill who was well known to the School. Mr. K. M. Fleming who took up office at the outset of the new 1956 term, had first come to Umtali High School in 1948 as superintendent of Tait House, where he had remained until his appointment as head of Fort Victoria High School.

Mr. Gaylard was replaced by Mr. G. E. McGrath, who had previously been on the staff of the School.

The School experienced few other major staff upsets after 1956 and under the supervision of Mr. Fleming the school's development moved into top gear.

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BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS

The first years were not easy as there was much work still to be done. The School was fortunate in having one of the best sites in the then Federation and the pupils were determined to make it in time one of the best schools.

"With the extensive un-worked grounds and limited facilities it was therefore necessary that the boys themselves should be the ones to set it on its feet. And so it was that the P.T. classes found themselves wielding shovels and planting grass; games groups extending their sports fields and defaulters providing a Saturday labour force. Under the guidance of its two heads, Mr. A. D. Gledhill and Mr. K. M. Fleming, the school was soon engaged in creating a permanent establishment of practical as well as aesthetic value from an area of veld." (Magazine 1956)

The office was first occupied on January 4th, 1954, to commence preparations for the new term, although at this stage the buildings were not yet completed. The original school; buildings consisted merely of the "old school" block (excluding the administrative block which was added only in 1961) and the two boarding hostels. This first school block consisted of seventeen classrooms and the office, which was situated where the biology lab. is at present. The hostels were originally built to hold 120 pupils each, and have since undergone very little alteration in structure, although it has been found that more than 120 boarders can be squeezed in.

The two hostels were named Crawford and Palmer after Umtali's only two surviving pioneers, while the day scholar houses were named Livingston and Hill, after the two previous headmasters. The school also retained two of the original hostels from Umtali High School - Kopje and Tait.

The School was officially opened on September 17th, 1954, by Sir Godfrey and Lady Huggins. In his opening address Sir Godfrey expounded the necessity for "self-help" - sound advice which has been adopted by the school ever since.

The General Purpose fee of £5 per annum which was set up from 1954, was insufficient to pay for games, hobbies, clubs and societies and the maintenance of grounds; under these conditions the school would have expected a deficit of some £200 per annum, especially since the hilly ground made construction and maintenance of fields costly. Thus it was that a "Special Appeal Fund" was opened whereby all donations were gratefully accepted. It was indeed encouraging during these early years to receive gifts and donations not only from old boys, but also many others completely unconnected with the School.

These donations made it possible to commence as early as the end of the first term, 1954, the building of other necessities for the school. The major building activities of 1954 included the Pavilion and the completing of the New Field.

The concrete structure of the pavilion cost some £3,000 as this could not be done by the boys but the walls, plastering and fitting of doors and windows were done by the pupils at a considerably reduced price. The actual building was completed early in 1955, but it was not yet supplied with electricity and sanitation. This was done in the first term of 1957, when Mr. G. Penfold did all the electrical installation free of cost and Mr. Meglic installed the showers and sanitation.

By the time the school was occupied, the "Main Field" had already been established. It was during 1955 that the then named ' New Field' was protected against erosion

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and water laid on. Some 31 acres of grass were planted by the boys and the new turf wicket was made. In addition to this new grass and concrete nets were completed before the end of 1954.

Another development was the building of a small open-air theatre in a convenient hollow in the south west corner of the school grounds. Work on this was commenced late in 1954, when the area was marked out and trenches dug for hedges and trees and completed in 1955. It was modelled on the lines of the ancient Greek and Roman Theatres. Tiers were built to seat the audience which was separated from the stage by a small stream. The theatre was opened in the first term of 1956 by Mr. A. J. R. Ridley, Inspector of Schools. Unfortunately little trace remains of this construction today.

At the end of 1955 the School was granted some 80 acres of valuable ground adjacent to the original 40 acres. This contract was carried out with the Umtali Municipality in exchange for 80 acres of veldt from the Government. This brought the total extent of the School grounds to 120 acres.

The development plan of the school did not provide for a tuck shop for several years and so in 1954, a fund was opened by Mr. W. R. Cruickshank to raise money for building a tuck shop. By the end of the year the sum of money collected was only £150 short of the amount required. The building was commenced and completed in March, 1955 and was equipped to a very high standard and produced revenue far in excess of expectations.

Although a set of three tennis courts were marked out in 1954 it was only after the end of the rainy season in 1955 that they were completed and wired. In addition a further three courts were marked out which were in turn completed after the rains of 1956. During this year temporary shelters were erected to serve as pavilions, two on playing fields and the other at the tennis courts.

General progress was made on the school grounds during 1955. As well as the two fields already mentioned, a half size field known as ' C' field was levelled and grassed. This was later to become the "Maritz Field" after Miss S. M. B. Maritz who was bursar at that time.

1955 saw the completion of the Workshop Block, which was a double storey building with two woodwork rooms and a workshop with a pit on the ground floor and a drawing office, classrooms, singing and music rooms upstairs. This was well up to the standard of the other buildings. Another building to go up in this year was the Armoury which was put up by the Military Authorities. At the same time ground was excavated for a parade ground.

The generosity of the Rhodesian State Lottery Trust brought the completion of the swimming pool by the end of 1956 — long before the school had dared hope. It was understood however that the installation of changing rooms would have to come later after the completion of the school hall, but a log cabin structure was built to serve meantime. The bath was fully tiled with a length of 75ft., breadth of 60ft., and a deepest point of 9ft. 6ins. The pool was officially opened on the 1st December, 1956, by Mr. B. B. Hill, a former headmaster of Umtali High School and a State Lottery Trustee. In 1957 the swimming bath surround was all but completed and permanent storm water drains constructed where necessary.

Another major task of 1956 was the levelling and grassing of the extensive area in

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front of the school and the beautifying of the approach to Crawford and Palmer houses. In 1957 an attractive pergola was constructed at the school to become the official bicycle parking area. An orchard was established and many flowering trees planted. In this connection Mrs. K. M. Fleming and Mrs. J. B. Clarke deserve mention for much fine work done on the gardens and rockeries in front of the school and in the hostel grounds.

After a grant of £1,500 from the Federal Ministry of Education in 1957 a new field was levelled with a view to being fit for use in January, 1959 and was named the "Goldberg Field" after the then Minister of Education. Another piece of ground adjacent to the "New Field" was levelled at no cost thanks to Mr. B. Hewitt on behalf of the Rhodesian Wattle Company. Although only grassed the following year, the field was used for junior cricket in the third term. In recognition of this service the field was named the "Hewitt Field." At the same time the area in front of Crawford and Palmer Houses was extended to cater for a hockey field.

Another addition to the school in 1957 was a .22 rifle range carved out of the hillside on the northern side of the Main Field.

1958 saw the commencement of the biggest development in the school other than the School Hall; namely the cinder track and the terracing of the overlooking bank to accommodate about 2,000 spectators. Great use was made of the labour of boys on "manual labour" a useful form of punishment which was given for misconduct. By the end of the year the final topping had been half completed. The track was officially opened on the 11th April, 1959, by Mr. W. R. du Bois, President of the then Southern Rhodesia Athletic and Cycling Association. The main instigator and supervisor in the building of the track was Mr. J.B.Clarke who was later to become deputy head of the school. In recognition of his services the track was named after him just before his departure in 1968.

By 1958 the school began to suffer from lack of accommodation. To ease this problem four new classrooms were started in September and completed in the first term of 1959. At the same time the headmaster's office was converted into a laboratory for post-certificate work and the administration moved to a temporary " tin hut" to await the erection of permanent buildings. This hut was described by the headmaster, Mr. K. M. Fleming, in his annual report as "being hardly big enough to swing a cane in."

Much development took place in the school grounds during 1959. The school orchard was enlarged by some 500 trees (a gift from Mr. Bargholz) which were planted around the fields and in other places to beautify the grounds. Two new turf wickets were prepared for use in the following year and the hockey field was improved. The surplus soil from this field was used to enlarge the ' C' field. New entrance roads to the school and playing fields were constructed as well as several internal roads.

Although work on the school hall was only commenced in 1959, the story of its development begins in 1954 when Mr. A. D. Gledhill began his persistent campaign

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in the Education Department, advertising the acute need for a hall. This was continued by Mr. Fleming when he became head in 1956. The next step was taken in April, 1956, by Mr. A.C. Soffe, chairman of the School Advisory Council, when he pointed the way to opening a "Hall Fund" by donating shares worth more than £500. The aim was to raise £8,000 and the project met with such success that by 1958 the fund stood at nearly £10,000, and by the end of 1959 the laying down of the foundations meant that a project of six years planning was becoming a reality.

VISITORS AND GIFTS

At the end of every year it was the practice of the school, as with other High Schools in the country, to hold a speech night (or day as it later became) during which a prominent member oi society was invited as guest speaker. Before the completion of the school hall in 1960, this ceremony took place in the Crawford/Palmer Dining Room. A list of the guest speakers from 1954 to 1959 is as follows:

1954 B. D. Goldberg Esq., M.P.
1955 H. H. Cole Esq., (Secretary designate for Education)
1956 The Hon. R. S. Garfield Todd, Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia.
1957 H. H. Cole Esq., Secretary for Education.
1958 The Hon. Sir Edgar Whitehead, Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia.
1959 The Hon. B. D. Goldberg, Minister of Education.

Another important event in the School's calendar was the Memorial Service in which tribute was paid to those Old Boys and Girl who gave their lives during the first and second World Wars. A list of the persons giving the address is as follows :

1954 T. Stratton, Esq.
1955 Dr. J. Leggate.
1956 Dr. H. Olivier G.M.C.
1957 A. W. Crombie, Esq.
1958 J. Ward, Secretary to Federal Power Board.
1959 A. Ball Esq.

In 1954 the school gratefully accepted a total of seven portraits from various sources. The Umtali Club presented the hostels with pastel portraits by Hals of Mr. J. L. Crawford and Mr. J. A. Palmer. It was fortunate that the school was presented with these portraits so early in its "life" for in 1954 and 1955 respectively, it was with deep regret that the school recorded the deaths of Mr. Palmer and Mr. Crawford. It is fitting that the names of these great pioneers be well and truly engraved in the history of the school.

The Old Borderers' Association presented the school with portraits, also by Hals, of Mr. H. G. Livingston and Mr. B. B. Hill, and Mr. Soffe presented portraits of Sir Winston Churchill, Sir Godfrey Huggins and General Smuts. All these portraits are at present on display at the school and hostels.

In 1957 Mr. G. V. Bottger very kindly presented the stained glass window bearing the School crest.

In the period 1954 to 1959 a tremendous amount of development took place and means for raising money were always being exploited. Thus it was a regular feature for the staff and boys to organise variety concerts and "nonsense" shows in addition to the normal School Plays, and thereby contribute towards the "kitty" These performances were held either in the open air theatre at the School or at the Beit Hall of U.G.H.S. The boys stuck to plain variety concerts, while the staff was more ambitious and produced a play and two skits which were more for amusement than

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anything else. The first staff production took place in 1956 and was "French without Tears" by Terrence Rattigan. In May of the following year the staff put on "Frontier Bar" by "Wild Bill Hiccup," a skit cum variety show which was described in the 1957 magazine as being "a kinda vaudeville show for the amusing' of boys an' gals' round' ' bout'". This show was produced by Mr. McGrath and Mr. Silcock who got together again in 1958 to produce "Harbour Bar," a similar type of production but with a nautical flavour.

HOBBIES AND GAMES

As far as extra mural activities are concerned, Umtali Boys' High School has always taken a great pride in the variety of clubs and societies which have been offered to the boys. The hobby groups offered in 1954 included Archery, Art, Athletics (this was not an official sport), .22 Bisley, .303 Bisley, Building, Chess, Choir, Dance Club, Debating, Dramatics, Musical Dramatics, Philately, Printing, Experimental and Natural Science groups and a Young Farmers Club. In 1955 a Model Aeroplane Club and Woodwork Club were introduced while a Metalwork Club was started in 1957. Although no new hobby groups were introduced in 1958, the year was notable for the increase in numbers taking advantage of these groups and also for the large amount of work done by the Printing Club. 1959 saw the introduction of three more hobby groups - the Angling Club, the Fencing Club and the Red Cross Society. Of these, the last is still in existence.

Of all the hobby groups at this time two stand out as being far more popular than the rest, the Debating Societies (senior and junior) and the Young Farmers' Club. It is interesting to trace the development of these two in more detail.

Although originally formed at U.B.H.S. in 1954, it was not until the third term of 1956 that the Senior Debating Society really got on its feet. At this meeting the office bearers were elected and Mr. Fleming was elected president. The constitution was drawn up, the main clause of which ruled that in future the office of president should be automatically bestowed upon the headmaster of the school. During the second term of 1957 the first ever inter-society meeting (other than with Umtali Girls' High School) was staged. In a match against the Umtali Debating Society the School's speakers succeeded in defeating the motion proposed by the U.D.S. The following two years several matches were held against the Girls' School and in 1959 a meeting was held against the Old Borderers' Society. The Junior Debating Society, although lacking the sophistication of the senior society, was nevertheless every bit as popular. The majority of debates were informal, e.g. "Balloon" or "Hat" debates, and often games were played instead.

When the Young Farmers' Club was first formed in 1954 it held only five acres of virgin bush. The initial aim of the Club was to be "declared" and become part of the National Federation of Young Farmers' Clubs. This was no easy task, but the tremendous amount of work done by the boys was soon recognised and the aim was realised before the end of the year. In January, 1955, Tony Batley brought even further notice to the club when he was selected for the Young Farmers International Exchange scheme as one of two Rhodesians to represent the country in England where he won a medal for cattle judging. The Club experienced a serious slump in 1957 due to untimely resignations on the part of the chairman and secretary. This had a great influence on numbers in the club and discouraged many potential members. The Club managed to pull through, however, and was fully on its feet again in 1958. In 1959 the club celebrated its fifteenth anniversary since its formation at the Umtali High School by organising a tour of the

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Marandellas/Bromley area. After five years at the new site the Club had established itself as the most popular society in the school with an annual financial turnover of nearly £150 strange when one considers that today, only ten years later, the club is completely non-existent.

Cadets started with 120 boys who comprised "D" Company. In the second term of 1957 " M" Company came into being-. The whole unit was divided into three (a) First year Cadets (from "Junior Company"); (b) second and third year Cadets (from "M" Company) and (c) fourth and fifth year cadets (from "D" Company.) In 1959 the total strength was up to 377.

During the average year the Cadets prepared themselves for three major events - the Queen's Birthday Parade, the Cadet Camp at Inkomo and the Annual General inspection. From time to time, however, sickness or lack of facilities (especially in the first two years'! forced one or more of these functions to be cancelled. It is notable that the U.B.H.S. Cadet Bisley team always did well at competitions organised at the Camp.

Lack of facilities restricted the sports to Rugby, Cricket, Athletics and Boxing. A major step forward was taken in 1956 when it became possible to provide games for all at least twice a week. Then in 1958, when many other sports could be offered, it became general policy that all boys, unless medically unfit, were to play cricket and rugby during their first and second years, thereafter they were given a free choice. This policy still pertains today, but for the first year only.

Although one of the four original sports offered, cricket proved very difficult in the first few years. In 1954 the fields and nets were played on for the first time and had not settled down properly, while the concrete nets had not yet been completed. This made batting practice very difficult. Conditions improved somewhat in 1955, but the fact that there were only two fields meant that match playing groups could only practise two afternoons a week and other groups only one. Some groups had to play on a matting wicket in the corner of the Main Field. (It was in this year that Softball was introduced for non-cricketers, which had the advantage of requiring little space.) Two additional good matting wickets were set up in 1956 which provided all with practice on two afternoons per week. The final development in cricket took place in the third term of 1959 when the system of senior and junior "County Cricket" was introduced. Here six senior and six junior teams were picked and games were played amongst these teams on a league basis. While this was not intended to improve the standard of cricket, it nevertheless made the game more enjoyable for those not in match playing groups. This system is still maintained today.

Unlike cricket, rugby suffered no serious drawbacks when the boys moved in 1954. In the first two years the four fields were adequate, although an extra field would have been welcomed. After 1955 the rugby groups had no problems and at no stage was the standard of play affected because of lack of facilities.

Inter-house athletic meetings were held on the main field until the Cinder Track was built and the first meeting to take place on the new track was in 1959 when 69 events were staged - 20 of them relays. Since then athletics at U.B.H.S. have never looked back.

Boxing had always been a popular sport among the boys, and so it was not surprising that it was continued in 1954. The main events in the year for boxers

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were the inter-house competition and the annual match against Prince Edward for the Vermaak Cup.

With the completion of the first three courts in 1955 tennis was played at the school but not as an official sport. Organised tennis groups began in 1956 when the second three courts were completed; the original groups having 90 players. The popularity of tennis grew steadily and in 1957 a team was entered for the first time in the Mini du Toit Trophy. In 1958 the courts were in such good condition that the school was able to stage the Federal Junior Championships. By the end of 1959 the standard of play had improved to such an extent that it was decided that boys taking tennis should be eligible for awards of team blazers and colours.

Swimming was very difficult for the boys in the first three years as the nearest pool was over two miles away, but with the completion of the pool at the end of 1956 swimming became a favourite pastime. Swimming was not introduced as a sport at first but definite rules were set up regarding the use of the pool. Only 36 boys were allowed in at a time and the pool was cleared every half hour for the next "batch" The number of non-swimmers decreased considerably and from 1958 boys began taking tests to pass the Royal Life Saving Certificate. All inter-house galas from 1956 were held in the school pool and most of the events were over a distance of 50 or 25 yards. Water polo was played for the first time at U.B.H.S. in 1959, although it was regarded, as it is today, as a hobby.

the hockey field in front of the hostels was still bumpy and rather dusty in the middle term of 1957, it was nevertheless decided to introduce hockey as an official sport. By 1959 the field had improved greatly and house matches were played for the first time on a knock out basis. Hockey has gone from strength to strength ever since.

The only other sport to be introduced in this period was soccer which was first played in 1958 and proved very popular in 1959 when three boys were selected for the Southern Rhodesian Under Sixteen Team.

In general the period between 1954 and 1959 was the period in which the main development of the school took place. From virgin bush the area had been transformed into a major landmark in Umtali and from being a small, little known school in the Eastern Districts of Rhodesia was recognised as one of the best schools in the country. This was due not only to the excellent guidance given by those in command but also to the dedication shown by the boys.

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Photo 73 A
Modern U.B.H.S.

Photo 73 B
The Laying of the Foundation Stone of the Memorial Chapel by his
Excellency the Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs in 1964

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Photo 74 A
Modern UGHS

Photo 74 B
The Gledhill Hall taken in 1960 soon after completion.

End of Page 74

Chapter IX

THE SIXTIES
1960-68

If the first few years at Tiger Kloof proved to be years of tremendous activity and development, the eight years of the sixties were to continue this development on apace.

The completion of the new Assembly Hall was a significant achievement bringing to fruition a project for which funds had been accumulating over the previous four and a half years. The School had, out of its own resources, to find or raise £8,000 which the government capped with a grant of £10,000. The opening of the Hall was planned for the 1st October and a large "Fiesta" was also organised but the Saturday turned out toi be an untypical October day, with low mist and gentle rain. Nevertheless the mist rose and by 3 p.m. the "Fiesta" was in full swing and a large crowd listened as the Minister of Education, the Hon. B. D. Goldberg, formally opened the Hall, naming it the Gledhill Hall. The Minister in his speech commented, "The name of this hall is a particularly happy choice. Mr. A. D. Gledhill made a great contribution to education in Rhodesia, first as a teacher at Prince Edward, then as an Inspector of Schools, and for many years, as headmaster of this school." (Umtali Post 3.10.1960)

The Hall in design is unusual and the architects took full advantage of the site, a gentle slope above the main school block. The main entrance leads into a stone-paved lobby, from where a flight of wooden stairs gives entry to the Hall proper, a third of the way into the Hall. Behind the staircase are tiers of seats, rising to a projection room. Large windows running the full length on both sides make the hall light and cool. Behind the large stage is a storeroom, two dressing rooms and a kitchen.

At the same time as the Hall was being completed, work was going ahead on the completion of a new block of classrooms just to the east of the hall. The new rooms, four classrooms and two laboratories, were built on to the small existing block of classrooms and when occupied at the end of the year, assisted considerably in easing the problem of over-crowded classrooms.

The next year further vital additions were made with the start and completion of the administration and library block. Since 1958 the Head and the Bursar, Miss Maritz, had been utilising a pre-fabricated hut in which "it was barely possible to swing a cane. Now the school boasted of the most up to date facilities in offices, store-rooms, staff-rooms and most important of all, a library. A large spacious room, it had shelving for 17,000 volumes, but these naturally were not immediately available and an urgent appeal was made for any suitable books that parents might have at home. By February, 1962, some two and a half thousand books had been donated including a complete set of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Indicative of the generosity of the "Umtali public was a gift of one hundred books from the personal collection of Miss P. S. Steedman. Indeed she went to the trouble of obtaining copies from second-hand book stalls in England.

Commenting at the annual Prize Giving in October, 1961, Mr. Fleming said that although they thought the school "a showpiece" much still remained to be accomplished. "I can give the boys a firm guarantee that for the next five years at

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least we will never have enough manual labour gangs to do what has to be done. The snag is going to be to determine priorities," (Umtali Post 30.10.61) and two priorities he pointed to were a gymnasium and chapel.

The Chapel was the first to be dealt with, largely because a great deal of work had already been done on the project. It had been originally mooted in 1944. under Mr. B. B. Hi11 and a start made to fund-raising. Unfortunately the separation of the school had halted work on the project, but in 1962, in conjunction with the Old Borderers' Association, an energetic drive for funds was made and by the end of the year the Head was able to report an addition of £1,800 to the fund. A year later the School Council and Chapel Committee approved the final plans for the building, while manual labour had already made some progress on the chosen site - the small, but prominent kopje to the north-east of the main school buildings. The plans called for, a brick-built decagon with a slender copper spire rising from the centre of a folded concrete roof. Directly behind the altar a clear glass window gives a view of the Vumba Mountains. This would help to symbolise the motto "Ex Montibus Robur." The foundation stone was laid by His Excellency the Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs on June 11th, 1964, and the foundations dug in May the following year. The first service was held on November 11th 1965 with the Chapel still unfinished, but the finishing touches were made and on Sunday, 26th June, 1966, the Archdeacon of Manicaland dedicated the building and brought to fruition a dream of twenty years.

The gymnasium was never started and a temporary area was cleared and levelled to cater for physical education and basketball. This area, in between the main School block and Crawford/Palmer, has however been selected as the site for a large gymnasium and plans for fund-raising are now being drawn up.

It would be wrong to say that all the building operations interfered with academic work, for the sixties saw tremendous advances in work covered and standards achieved. In the first place bursary and scholarship lists, showed that the School maintained a standard of learning equal to any school. In 1960 a Beit Scholarship was awarded to G. E. Butterfield and a Government Bursary to J. W. Smith. In 1961 Noel Sheppy was awarded the Vacuum Oil Scholarship while Harold Rees won a Government Bursary. 1964 set a record with four scholarships won on the results of the 1963 Higher School Certificate — Anthony Dryburgh and John Coleman both won Anglo American engineering scholarships, while a Government scholarship was awarded to John Tylse and Robert Oddy won the Umtali Municipal Bursary. These successes were continued the next year with Ivan Rudolph, Robert Guthrie and Peter Wentworth all winning bursaries. The list of bursaries in 1967 included a £300 Government Scholarship to Michael Tselentis while in 1968 saw the list of winners extended to five boys - Michael Hilburn, Malcolm Greenway, David James, Timothy Dufton and John Ford and Michael Burton who had been at U.B.H.S. from 1957-1962 was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship.

These results were achieved during a period when the examination System was undergoing considerable change. In 1960 the College of Preceptors' examination was introduced as the public examination for the C and D streams, an examination which the pupils tackled with considerable success, twenty out of twenty-one passing in the first year of its introduction. But in his report for the year it was not to the College of Preceptors' examination that the Head referred, but to the introduction of the new academic examination, the General Certificate of Education in 1963. Commenting to parents at Prize Giving, 1963, Mr. Fleming said that "G.C.E. is a subject examination and a boy can get a certificate by having passed

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one subject only. We naturally expect boys to pass in all subjects for which they are entered. " When the results came out in 1964 they were not good and there was some debate in the press columns on the relative merits of the old Cambridge School Certificate and the new General Certificate; as the Regional Director of Education, Mr. M. E. Richardson said, there were "teething troubles but we are committed to the G.C.E. for 1965. "The acting Headmaster, Mr. J. B. Clarke speaking for the staff said that the results were much as expected." I feel that the major difference between the two examinations is that the G.C.E. demands a higher level of scholarship to gain a distinction or top mark. "The teething troubles were gradually ironed out, and the results improved with 62 % pass in 1966 and 75 % pass in 1967.

The post certificate examinations and classes also came in for some criticism and in 1966 Mr. Fleming feared that ' A' level courses may have to be dropped as numbers taking the course were dwindling. In 1968 he commented on ' M' level saying that "it is now being totally and utterly abused" and in fact plans are being drawn up presently for the replacement of the examination.

As is common with most schools in Rhodesia there was a fairly high turnover in staff, as many as a third changing during a year. But the school was particularly sorry to say good-bye to three long serving members of the staff. Mr. H. J. Theron who had first come to the school in 1934, left some time after his official retirement in December, 1967. It was with considerable sorrow that the School recorded his death the following year. In 1968 Mr. J. B. Clarke left to become Headmaster of Plumtree after distinguished service while in the same year Mr. E. J. Mirams left to take up an appointment at Ellis Robins after twenty-one years at the school.

The grounds were further improved with the sinking of a bore-hole which provided the fields with a regular supply of water. A new hockey field was completed on the southern boundary while Dedymas, the school builder, did a great deal in providing additional amenities such as changing rooms and seating terraces. Two fields were renamed in 1968, the first being the Athletic Track which was named the J. B. Clarke field after the former Deputy Headmaster who had done so much to bring about the cinder track and the excellent standard of athletics. The New Field was re-named the Wallace Field after Mr. I. O. A. Wallace who had been appointed caretaker-groundsman of Umtali High School in 1952 and who had been primarily responsible for preparing the Tiger Kloof site for its occupation in 1954.

The School was visited by many distinguished people including the Governor General, Lord Dalhousie; the Governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs, Mr. Ayerst of the British Inspectorate, and the Officer Administering the Government, Mr. Dupont. A most memorable day was undoubtedly Speech Day of 1965 when the Prime Minister took time off from political activities to address the School. Due to the political rift between Britain and Rhodesia, the audience included a larger number of radio, television and press reporters and the Hall was strewn with microphone cables and television cameras. Although the reporters were disappointed in their hopes of getting a "scoop," the School was delighted to find itself the centre of attraction and within a few days letters were coming from overseas relating the coverage of the Speech Day on television.

But the appearance of the Prime Minister took on more fundamental importance a few days later with the Declaration of Independence on 11th November, 1965, and the consequent imposition of economic sanctions by Britain. There were fears that extra-mural activities would be curbed as a result of petrol rationing and tentative suggestions of lift clubs and greater use of bicycles were made, while at a Parents'

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Executive Committee meeting, Mr. Fleming was asked to go ahead with the drawing up of a new timetable which would provide for pupils to eat their lunch at school, do their prep under supervision and then participate in afternoon extra-mural activities. When the school reopened in the New Year, it was obvious that sanctions were affecting the school as several items of clothing- including honours ties and straw-bashers were unobtainable or in short supply. It was this shortage that led to the institution of the "Swop Shop," which collects and then swops or sells items of clothing. Under the guidance of Mrs. Betty Allen and assisted by Mrs. Chadder, Mrs. Lark and Mrs. Glendenning, the scheme got off to a good start and has now become a regular feature of school life. The political situation also led indirectly to the adding of a further name to the Roll of Honour when in March, 1968, Trooper Reginald Binks was killed whilst engaged in anti-terrorist activities. Reginald entered the High School in 1964 and left at the end of 1967 after completing his College of Preceptors' examination. Described by the Headmaster as "a very pleasant hard-working boy, with a most responsible attitude" his name was added to the Roll at Memorial Service on Friday, 8th November.

A list of speakers at Speech Day Speech Day

1960 Hon. T. I. F. Wilson
1961 J. B. Ross
1962 J. A. C. Houlton
1963 J. D. Slaven
1964 M. E. Richardson
1965 The Rt. Hon. I. D. Smith
1966 Professor R. H. Christie
1967 His Excellency, the Officer Administering the Government C. Dupont
1968 Major General R. R. J. Putterlll

and Memorial Service is as follows:

Memorial Service
1960 T. Stratton
1961 St. J. W. S. Burton
1962 D. C. Knight
1963 K. M. Fleming
1964 Wing Commander R. H Annan D.S.O.
1965 W. J. Chadder
1966 His Worship the Mayor, Cllr. W. W. S. Smart
1967 Group Captain J. Deall
1968 Major P. Johnson

In the sixties some tremendous achievements were made in the world of sport, notably in athletics where Roy Coltman leaped 6' 1" in 1962 and Douglas Schorr heaved the shot 50' 9" in 1967. In the cricket world, 1965 was a good year for Frank Richmond who became the first Umtali boy to score over 600 runs in a year. Rugby reached a pinnacle when in 1966 the First XV beat the touring Selbourne College from East London 30-21, in a match described by many as "the finest game of schoolboy rugby seen in the town." Mike Taylor became a well-known figure in the swimming world after setting Rhodesian records for the back stroke while still at school. New sports have been introduced and have prospered, particularly squash after the completion of two squash courts in 1968.

In the realm, of hobbies the tradition of a wide range of pursuits has been maintained and added to by the establishment of a Wild Life Society and a History Society in 1968 and they are already contributing to the broader education of the pupils as they

End of Page 78

pass through the school.

With the leasing of the Young Men's Club at the end of 1968, the School has followed a tradition of having parts of the school scattered around the town. The Club serves now as a junior hostel and has been named Soffe House in honour of Mr. A. C. Scofe who as a member of the School's Advisory Committee did so much towards obtaining the land at Tiger Kloof.

One feature that disappeared from the school scene was the Cadet movement which was disbanded throughout the) country in August, 1968, primarily for financial reasons. As an institution of considerable value in developing discipline and individual initiative and competence there was much regret expressed at its passing.

And so, as the sixties came to an end and the Schools celebrate their diamond Jubilee, it can be said with considerable justification that the story of their development is a story of constant progress, of material and mental growth, of hardships and joys, of a continuous stream of members of staff and pupils who have all in their own way contributed to make the Schools fine examples of education.

End of Page 79

REFERENCES

a.: National Archives
B.S.A. Co. Correspondence 1899-1912. Inspectors' Reports 1908-1912. Director of Education Reports 1900-1908. School Advisory Committee minutes 1908-1917." Rhodesia Advertiser "1896-1909.

b.: Oral and written reminiscences:
Miss S. Maritz, Mrs. V. Curtin, Mrs. M. J. Tulloch, Mrs. M. Parkin, Mr. M. H. Hill, Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Hutchinson, Mrs. H. J. Muggleton, Miss T. Rose, Mrs. E. Mayo, Mrs. D. Brown, Mr. P. W. Austin, Mrs. A. M. Ruxton,- Mrs. R. E. Vowles, Mrs. A. Ball, Mrs. E. M. Gledhill, Mr. B. T. Holman, Mr. A. W. H. Coleman, Mrs. D. Catsicas, Rev. E. Sells, Mr. and Mrs. P. Brown, Mr. van Lelyveld, Mrs. J. L. Christie, Mrs. O. R. Soffe, Mr. C. Hulley, Miss E. M. Clark, Mr. K. M. Fleming.

c.: School Archives.
School Advisory Committee Minutes 1917-1931.
Inspectors' Reports 1913-1930.
Director of Education Reports, 1909-1911, 1921-1924, 1930.
School Logbooks 1922-1968.
"The Borderer" 1923-1968

d.: Miscellaneous :
Reports on the Rhodes" an Conferences of the Methodist Church 1898-1907, Old Umtali Mission. Notes on Old Umtali, Umtali Museum.
"Rhodesia Advertiser" 1927-1931, Turner Memorial Library." Umtali Advertiser" 1939-1946, Turner Memorial Library." Umtali Post "1954-58, Turner Memorial Library. Roll of Honour, 1939-1945 - 4th (Manicaland) Battalion, Royal Rhodesia Regiment.
Notes on School Roll of Honour; February 1969 — Army Headquarters, Salisbury. Notes on Rhodesian education system, 1908-1967 - January, 1969 Ministry of Education.
South African "Who's Who" - 1967.
The War History of Southern Rhodesia 1939-1945. Vol. II.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

In. a work of this length, the number of people to whom we are deeply grateful, is indeed long and impossible to list without omitting some; and therefore, to everyone who has in any way contributed material and information, no matter what size or shape, we acknowledge our debt and sincere thanks.
Nevertheless some people must be referred to by name, particularly Miss E. Mackenzie and Mrs. E. M. Cox who have deciphered and corrected our original manuscripts and typed them for the printers; the Heads of the two Schools, Miss E. M. Clark and Mr. K. M. Fleming, for constant encouragement and permission to refer to material in the Schools' records; Mr. W. S. S. Forsyth who designed the cover and Mr. Winch who has redone old prints and photographed maps; and finally to our printers, the Rhodesian Printing and Publishing Company who have borne our vagaries with great patience.

End of Page

APPENDICES

HEADMASTERS AND HEADMISTRESSES

Miss E. M. Clark, B.A., Dip.Ed., U.G.H.S., 1958
Miss Clark was born at Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire, and educated at Scunthorpe Grammar School. She obtained her degree at the University of Sheffield.

After leaving university Miss Clark taught in Hull and North London before joining the service of the Southern Rhodesian Government in June, 1947. After spending a few weeks at Queen Elizabeth School, Salisbury, and a term at Plumtree School she joined the staff of the Girls' High School, Salisbury, in January, 1948. She was appointed as Deputy Headmistress to the Umtali Girls' High School in January, 1957, and was appointed Headmistress on the retirement of Miss McLaughlin in May, 1958.

Miss M. McLaughlin, B.Sc, U.G.H.S., 1954-1958
Miss McLaughlin was born at Uddington, Lanarkshire, and was educated at Lawside Convent High School, Dundee, and Glasgow University, from where she graduated in 1923.

She trained as a teacher in Scotland and then taught from 1924 to 1932 at the Sacred Heart Convent High School in Hammersmith. She joined the Southern Rhodesian Education Department in January, 1933, and was first appointed to the staff of the Girls' High School, Salisbury, where she remained until the end of 1938. She then moved to Eveline School, Bulawayo, where she taught until August, 1953, excepting for a year spent at Inverness, Scotland under the scheme for interchange of teachers in 1950. In 1951 Miss McLaughlin was appointed Deputy Head of Eveline School. She acted as Headmistress of the school for one term in 1952.

In September, 1953 she moved to Umtali, where she was associated with Mr. Gledhill as Headmistress Elect in establishing the separate Boys' and Girls' High Schools. Miss McLaughlin assumed control of the Umtali Girls' High School in January, 1954, and retired at the end of the first term 1958.

Mr. K. M. Fleming, B.A., U.E.D., U.B.H.S, 1956
Mr. Fleming was born in Gwelo and educated at Plumtree School. After leaving school he joined the Civil Service in the Customs Department. While working there he became interested in law and decided to study at Rhodes University College. While at university he took a part-time position at St. Andrew's Preparatory School and subsequently changed to a teacher training course and qualified in 1935.

His first appointment with the Southern Rhodesian Education Department took him to Chaplin School, Gwelo, in 1936. By the end of 1938 he was teaching at his old school Plumtree, where he remained until 1947.

In 1948 he came to the Umtali High School and took over Tait House as master in charge until 1951, when he was appointed Deputy Headmaster. In 1953 he became Headmaster of Fort Victoria School. In January, 1956, he returned to Umtali to take up the post of Headmaster of Umtali Boys' High School.

End of Page 81

Mr. A. D. Gledhill, M.A., 1947-1953, U.H.S. - 1954-1955, U.BH.S.
Mr. Gledhill was born in Yorkshire and was educated at Ilkley Grammar School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Before he took his degree in 1919 he served in the Armed Forces. He was at first a member of a cavalry division but when this took to bicycles, he changed to the 1st Suffolk Regiment. In 1916 he joined the Royal Flying Corps and spent the last two years of the war in this service.

After obtaining his degree he took up an appointment in England. In 1924 Mr. Gledhill came to Rhodesia and obtained a post at the Salisbury Boys' High School (now Prince Edward), where he became Deputy Head. In 1935 he became a Schools' Inspector stationed in Bulawayo. While in Bulawayo he performed valuable work as Secretary of the National Youth Council. He was acting Chief Inspector of Schools for two short periods after 1943 and for a few months prior to his appointment of Headmaster of Umtali High School as from the third term of 1947.

Mr. B. B. Hill, B.A., M.C., O.B.E., U.H.S., 1931-1947
Mr. Hill was born in Durham, the son of the Headmaster of Queen Elizabeth School, Yarm-on-Tees, Yorkshire. He was educated at his father's school and later graduated from King's College, London University.

During the First World War he served with the following: the W. Yorkshire Regiment, the 8th Manchester Regt. 1st Div., 1st Munsters 1st Div. and, finally, the Royal Tank Corps, 13th Tank Battalion. While serving with the R.T.C. he was decorated with the Military Cross in April, 1918, reaching the rank of captain and was severely wounded in action.

After the war he taught at Prescott, Lancashire, before coming to Rhodesia in 1920. Mr. Hill was at Chaplin School, Gwelo, for 10 years before being promoted to the position of Principal of the Umtali High School in 1931.

In addition to his work at the school he sponsored the Child Welfare Association and was its chairman for many years. He helped found the Young Men's Club and the Adult Education Centre. He served on the S.R. Education Committee, was president of the Rhodesia Teachers' Association and on numerous occasions was chairman of the Heads of High Schools' Association. He was a great supporter of the Old Borderers' Association and could always be relied on to be present at the annual reunions. In 1947 "B.B." was awarded the O.B.E.

He was appointed a Trustee of the S.R. State Lottery and it was in this capacity that he opened the swimming baths at U.B.H.S. in 1957 and U.G.H.S. in 1958. He died on his son's farm, "Leap Year", Marandellas, in February, 1964.

Mr. H. G. Livingston, M.A., M.C., U.H.S, 1922-1929
Mr. Livingston, of Lurgan, Northern Ireland, read classics at Trinity College, Dublin, where he had a brilliant career as a classical scholar. He was a Latin prizeman and gained other honours.

During the First World War he was awarded the Military Cross and was seriously wounded at Gallipoli.

After a brief period of service at the Colonial Office, London, he came to Southern Rhodesia as Second Master of Milton School, Bulawayo.

End of Page 82

In March, 1922, he was appointed Headmaster of Umtali High School. His period of office, 1922-1929, was marked by important changes and rapid expansion. Each year saw increased development in all branches of school activity — academic, cultural and sporting. To mention but a few of the advances made under him, 1923 full status as a High School, 1924 House system established, 1926 new buildings, 1924 Chancellor House for boys and in 1927 Athlone House for girls. Before he left in 1929 he had successfully organised the establishment of the Old Borderers' Association.

He was transferred to Milton Senior School as Headmaster during Christmas 1929. Mr. Livingston died on 29th March, 1967.

Mr. J. G. Sutherland, M.A., F.G.S., F.R.Met C, U.P.S., 1913-1921
Mr. Sutherland was a distinguished scholar and an experienced teacher. He was an Honours Graduate in Mathematics and Science, a prizeman of his university in Classics and English. He had been elected Fellow of the Geological Society as well as Fellow of the Meteorological Society.

He arrived at Umtali Public School in April, 1913. After his resignation from Government Service (B.S.A. Co.) in 1921, he taught Latin very successfully for 18 years at Boksburg High School. He died in August, 1942.

Mr. W. Garner, B.A. (Int.), R.U.I., 1909-1912
Mr. Garner was born and educated in Ireland. He came from Belfast to Umtali to take up the Headship of the American Methodist Episcopal Mission School, the Umtali Academy, in October, 1907. He played a prominent part in the discussions for the amalgamation of the Umtali Academy and the Umtali High School under Government control. The parents of the pupils, as the time for amalgamation neared, signed a petition in favour of the retention of Mr. Garner as principal of the new Government school. Thus in January, 1909, Mr. Garner became the first Head. He was transferred at the end of 1912.

End of Page 83

ROLL OF HONOUR
THE FIRST WORLD WAR, 1914-1918
(Information, where possible, is presented as follows: Rank, name, Service, Place and date of death)

KELLEHER, C, Royal Navy. Lost at sea whilst on board H.M.S. Pathfinder 5th September, 1914.

Private BENNETT, W. E., 2nd Rhodesian Regiment. Killed in action East Africa 11th March,1916.

Rifleman NORRIS J., Rhodesian Platoon, Kings Royal Rifle Corps. Killed in action, France, 25th May, 1916

Second Lieutenant GREEN, C. E., Shropshire Light Infantry. Killed in action, Prance, 14th July, 1916

Lieutenant TULLOCH, E. ST. C, Northumberland Fusiliers. Killed in action, France, July, 1916

Private KARRANI V., 2nd Rhodesian Regiment attached to the First South African Infantry. Missing, accepted as dead, France, 24th March, 1918.

Lieutenant HART, R. G., 10th Royal Warwick Regiment. Missing, presumed dead, France, 13th July, 1918.

TAYLOR, E., Yorkshire and Lancaster Regiment.

THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 1939-1945
(Information, where possible, is presented as follows: Rank, name, service, place and date of death, when a pupil at Umtali

Pilot Officer JAMES, H. S., 144 B Squadron, killed in air accident, Lincoln, England, 2nd June, 1939. 1931-35.

Lieutenant REID, G. P. S., Royal Field Artillery, killed in Flanders, France, June, 1940. 1927-35.

Lieutenant WATSON, J. G. F., 1st Battalion, Nigerian Regiment, died at Dobel, East Africa, 31st July, 1940. 1927-33.

Flying Officer HOLMAN, F. S., R.A.F., 33 Squadron. Killed air operation over Athens, Greece 20th April, 1941. 1920-31

(F/O HOLMAN had shot down eleven enemy aircraft before his death and was mentioned in despatches

Trainee Sergeant Pilot BROWNE. C. E., 57 O.T.U., R.A.F. Died in air accident, Chester, England, 10th August, 1941. 1936-1939

Trainee Sergeant Pilot PARKIN, G. J., 19 Squadron R.A.F. Killed, air operations over the North Sea, 29th August, 1941. 1927-28.

Sergeant Pilot VAN DER MERWE, N. P., S.R.A.F., R.A.F. No. 16 Squadron. Killed air operations Stoke Lyne, England, 20th September, 1941.

Lance Bombardier, McBEATH, D., Royal Horse Artillery. Died of wounds Libya, 28th November, 1941. 1st term, 1932.

Trainee Sergeant Pilot MOORE, A. J., 106 Squadron, R.A.F. Missing on air operations to Hamburg, 30th November, 1941. 1925-1936.

Pilot Officer LEES, C. E., 266 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed in air accident, Duxford, Cambridgeshire, 8th March, 1942. 1924-30.

Pilot Officer LEGGO, D. C, 249 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed on air operations near Halfar, Middle East 20th March, 1942. 1929-33

End of Page 84

Sergeant Pilot MARKIDES, P., 83 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed on air operations over Lichtaert, Germany 25th March, 1942. 1926-37.

Second Lieutenant GREEN, J. H., R.A.F. Killed on active service in the Western Desert 22nd June, 1942. 1922-29.

Trainee Sergeant Air Gunner REID, G. A., 25 Operational Training Unit, R.A.F. Killed on air operations to Essen, Germany, 2nd June, 1942. 1938.

Pilot Officer EDWARDS, F. F. J., 112 Squadron, R.AF. Missing near El Adam, Libya, 13th June, 1942. 1938-39.

Flying Officer HOLLAND, C. T., 44 Squadron R.A.F. Missing on a mission to Zuider Zee, 14th September, 1942. 1926-34.

Flight Sergeant WILLIAMS R. E., 44 Squadron R.A.F. Missing on air operations over Epe, Holland, 14th September, 1942. 1921-27.

Captain BROMWICH, H. C, 1/3 Kings African Rifles att. Sudan Defence Force. Missing in Egypt 15th or 16th September, 1942, 1919-27.

Leading Aircraftsman METHUEN G. R., R.A.F. Died as a result of an air accident, England, 25th September, 1942. 1926-30.

Sergeant Air Gunner VAN LELYVELD J. P., 76 Squadron, R.A.F. Missing during air operations over Germany, 1st October, 1942. 1928-37.

Flight Sergeant Navigator ROSE, W. J., 207 Squadron R.A.F. Missing air operations Europe 7th November, 1942. 1929-37.
F/Sgt. Nav. ROSE was awarded the D.F.M. for meritorious action in navigating his aircraft after it was damaged during the le Creusot raid, 17th October, 1942.

BULLOCK G. S. Merchant Navy. Killed at sea off Port of Spain November, 1942. 1913-18.

Sergeant Air Gunner AUSTIN, F. H., 51 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed air operations near Sarmusen Kreis, Steinberg, 4th April, 1943. 1937-38

Trainee Sergeant Pilot BOYD-CLARK, J. B., No. 20 S.F.T.S., R.A.F. Died of nephritis, Northallerton, England, 8th April, 1943. 1927-36.

Flying Officer RAIL, W. D., 44 Squadron, R.A.F. Missing air operations over Europe 14th May, 1943. 1931-35.

Corporal VAN DER LINDE, L. J., 1st Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps. Killed at sea, Middle East, 17th June, 1943. 1935-36.

Flying Officer DUFF, P. R., 210 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed air accident, Poole Harbour, England, 24th August, 1943. 1931-34.

Captain BLYTH, C. J., King's Own Royal Regiment. Killed in action Leros, Aegean Sea, 16th November, 1943. 1930-32.

Signalman WHITEHEAD, C. H., Long Range Desert Group. Killed in action Leros, Aegean Sea, 16th November, 1943. 1926-35.

Lieutenant LOVE A., E.A.A.S.C. Died from pneumonia, Nairobi, 4th January, 1944. 1909-1916.

Captain LENTON, R. P., 56 (E/A) F/B E.A.A. Killed in action at sea 12th February, 1944, 1932-35.

Regimental Sergeant Major AMM, W. R. S., 14th Battalion Nigerian Regiment R.W.A.F.F. Died on service Umsweswe, Rhodesia, 17th March, 1944. 1920-30.

Pilot Officer JACKSON, A. D., R.A.F. Killed on active service, April, 1944. 1927-30.

Lieutenant SEARLE-CROSSLEY D., 12, Nigerian Regiment. Killed in action, Burma, 20th April, 1944. 1930-32.

Trooper VENTER W. D. F., 11th S.A. Armoured Brigade, Pretoria Regiment. Died of wounds G.W.S., Italy 20th June, 1944. 1934-35.

Pilot Officer SCHOLTZ N. J. W., 44 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed on air operations over Wessling, Germany 22nd June, 1944. 1940-41.

Flight Sergeant UREN, P. G., 61 Squadron R.A.F. Killed on air operations, St. Leu D' Esserent, France, 8th July, 1944. 1932-37.

End of Page 85

Flying Officer HARROLD, J. C, 266 Squadron, R.A.F. KUled on air operations Le-Brevil-En-Auge, France, 19th July, 1944. 1933-40.

Sergeant Pilot LOVE W. R., 266 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed air operations, St. Maquerite Des Loge, France, 17th August, 1944. 1933-35.

Trooper NEZAR, C. J. C, Prince Alfred's Guard (Union Defence Force) 6th Division. Died of wounds, Castiglione, Italy, 18th October, 1944. 1929-37.

Air Gunner BECKLEY, M. G., 44 Squadron R.A.F. Killed on raid Dortmund-Ems Canal, Germany, 4th November, 1944. 1938-40.

COCKERELL A. E. W., 6th Division, Union Defence Force. Killed in action, Italy. December, 1944. 1928-35.

Flying Officer SUTTON, P. W., 237 Squadron R.A.F. Killed on air operations, Spezia-Genoa area, Italy, 25th February, 1945. 1933-35.

Squadron Leader ERASMUS, C. D., 193 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed on air operations near Raathe, Holland 9th March, 1945. 3rd term 1931 - 1st term, 1936.
Squadron Leader ERASMUS was the holder of the D.F.C.)

Private BERRY P. G., 6th Division, First City/Cape Town Highlanders. Missing presumed dead, Mt. Abelle, Italy 16th April, 1945. 1931-34.

Flying Officer MANSELL N. B., 237 Squadron, R.A.F. Killed on air operations, Lodi, Italy, 25th April, 1945. 1935-37.

Private EVERT, A. S., 6th Division (FC/CTH). Killed in action, Italy 11th May 1945. 1927-1936.

Miss Kathleen Tulloch was born in 1899 and was taught at Umtali High School during the early 1900s. After leaving the school she followed a teaching career. She retired from her profession and went to stay in a cottage with her married sister near Crowborough, England. While there she carried out voluntary relief work and was killed in 1945 by a V.E. bomb while she was asleep. 1938

ANTI-TERRORIST OPERATIONS
Private BINKS R., Rhodesia Light Infantry. Killed in terrorist action Zambezi Valley, 26th March 1968. 1964-67.

"They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old; Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning. We will remember them."

End of Page 86

SOME PROMINENT OLD BORDERERS

F.W. AUSTIN, M.B.E., C.St.J., Minst., F.R.S.A.
He retired from the Rhodesia Railways in 1963, prior to which he was (in succession) General Assistant to the General Manager, Assistant Chief Stores Superintendent and finally, Chief Commercial Officer (or Manager as the position is now entitled).

T. A. T. BOSMAN, Q.C., B.A., LL.B.
Was Southern Rhodesian Inter-School High Jump Champion (1928) and Rhodesian University champion. Was Attorney-General for Rhodesia and is now Chairman of the Public Services Board of Rhodesia.

ST. J. S. W. BURTON
Was Rhodesian record holder for the 100, 220 and 440 yards. Is Regional Magistrate for Bulawayo

The late D. CATSICAS, O.B.E.
Mayor of Umtali 1945-48 and 1957-58. Installed as Alderman, February, 1949. Past President, Umtali Rotary Club. He was on many committees dealing with the social welfare of Umtali.

G.D. COX, M.V.O., D.F.C.
Is the Deputy Secretary for Economics and Marketing at the Ministry of Agriculture. Was a member of the National Export Council 1964-66.

The late ALEX CROMBIE
Started his railway career in Umtali as an apprentice coachbuilder and rose to the position of Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Rhodesia Railways.

Lt. Col. L. V. A. D'ARCY (Lt. Col. R.E.M.E., Retired)
Served in the Indian Army (1938-47) and the British Army (1948-1958). Is a director of C.M.E.D.

J. H. DEALL, D.S.O., O.B.E., D.F.C.
After a distinguished war career (he was made Officer Commanding 266 Squadron, R.A.F. in 1944 and Wing Commander Operations, No. 146 Wing, 2nd T.R.F., 1945) he has risen to the position of Air Commodore, R.R.A.F.

P. F. DE BRUIJN, B.Sc, U.E.D. (Rhodes)
Deputy Headmaster Milton School; appointed Headmaster Churchill School, May 1968.

S. E. FLETT
Formerly Registrar of Deeds, serving on Public Services Board.

J. O. M. JACKSON, B.A., LL.B.
Chief Magistrate of Rhodesia

MISS S. M. B. MARITZ
Born and educated in Umtali, she was School Bursar from 1926 to 1962, often working under very trying conditions.

JO MILLS (formerly Jessie Waring)

End of Page 87

Was runner-up in Miss South Africa contest and later became a model overseas. She married Gordon Mills who is now the millionaire manager of Tom Jones and Engelbert Humperdinck.

The late L. R. MORGAN M.A. (Oxon.), B.A. (C.T.), C.B.E.
Attended 1910-11. Was appointed Federal Secretary for Education, 1954.

C. A. L. MYBURGH, M.Comm., Ph.D., F.S.S.
Is the Director of Census and Statistics of the Rhodesia Government.

H. G. OLIVIER, M.Sc, Ph.D., C.M.G.
Chief Engineer in charge civil engineering contracts Owen Falls Hydro-electric scheme, Uganda 1950-54. Consultant Engineer responsible for civil engineering works associated with Kariba Hydro-electric scheme. In 1960 appointed Consultant to Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, London, primarily concerned with Indus Basin settlement projects in Pakistan. In 1964 became partner in Gibb Hawkins and Partners, Johannesburg. Now chairman of the big construction group L.T.A. with headquarters in Johannesburg

JASMINE ROSE-INNES (formerly Gordon-Forbes)
Teacher of Design in London. Has written a book, "Writing in the Dust" on her early life in Rhodesia.

Councillor W. W. S. SMART
Former Manicaland and Rhodesian hockey player. Mayor of Umtali, 1966-68, now deputy Mayor.

P. VAN HEERDEN, M.P.
M.P. for Rusape and Minister of Lands and Water Development in the Rhodesian Government.

W. W. WARBURG
After leaving school apprenticed with Union-Castle Mail Steamship Co. Ltd. (1933-39) and joined the staff of Alfa-Laval in 1946. Is now a Managing Director of the latter.

JAMES WARD, C.B.E.
Rose to the rank of Lieut. Col. during the War. Served in the Federal Government being Deputy Secretary External Affairs and Defence (1953-55), Secretary for Power (1955-58), Secretary for Economic Affairs (1958-61). Is now Chairman of the Central African Power Corporation and Director of Rhodesia Tea Estates Ltd.

H. T. F. WENT
Member of Umtali Town Council 1946-55. Mayor 1952. M.P. 1958-62. Managing Director Carlisle Enterprises Ltd., Director Commercial Timber Agencies Ltd.

K. P. J. WENT
During the War served with R.W.A.F.F. and rose to rank of Captain. Assurance Manager S.A. Mutual, Gwelo.

DOREEN WHITMARSH GRAY (formerly Moore).
Gained M.A. degree in Fine Art with first class honours. In 1939 her picture "In the Early Morning" was purchased for exhibition at the New York World Fair. A well

End of Page 88

known Umtali artist.

End of Page 89

HEAD BOYS

1927

L. Hatch - L. Orpen

1949

N. Myers

1928

L. Orpen

1950

G. Deftereos

1929

R. Edwards

1951

N. Miller

1930

R. Michell

1952

E. Deftereos

1931

R. Michell

1953

C. Green

1932

E. Levy

1954

A. Ferreira

1933

C. Brown

1955

I. McCulloch

1934

C. Brown

1956

B. Bragge

1935

T. F. Roberts

1957

D. McDougall. J. Shevill

1936

T. Y. Louw

1958

O. Norbert

1937

R. Lark

1959

H. Stacey

1938

D. Baker

1960

N. Sheppy

1939

V. Condy

1961

C. Heymans

1940

J. Godfrey

1962

T. Atkins

1941

R. Rail

1963

A. Dryburgh

1942

J. Clarke

1964

G. Hobbins

1943

G. Browne

1965

M. Springer

1944

J. Remmer - F. Hill

1966

L. de Swardt

1945

R. France

1967

W. Torrie

1946

R. France

1968

P. Palframan

1947

K. Anderson

1969

H. Gagiano

1948

N. Myers


HEAD GIRLS

1927

Bridget Rose

1948

Patricia Arthur

1928

Bridget Rose

1949

Willa Ness – Jean Kirkland

1929

Bliss Nielson

1950

Jill Ade

1930

Eleanor Hunter

1951

Esme Mountain

1931

Helen Cooper

1952

Theodora Goss

1932

Dorothy Tapson

1953

Valerie Harris

1933

Eileen Monk

1954

Cecily Ronan

1934

Muriel Bull

1955

Yvonne Johnstone

1935

Doris Edwards

1956

Jill Russel

1936

Joan Proctor

1957

Alison Finlay

1937

Barbara Taylor

1958

Alison Finlay

1938

Joan Pascoe

1959

E'leen Maclean

1939

Hilda Purse

1960

Gillian Williams

1940

Louise de Kock

1961

Jeanne Norris

Doris Rake

1962

Myfanwy Thomas

1941

Natal1 e Livingstone

1963

Daphne Ranee

1942

Molly Wilson

1964

Alice Zambelis

1943

Margaret Albertyn

1965

Pamela Hughes

1944

Hester Bosnian

1966

Hendrina Viljoen

1945

Erica Liebermann

1967

Pauline Mirams

Eileen Hacking

1968

Felicity Garside

1946

Olga Matiatos - Winefrede

1969

Carol Stewart - Gillian Hill

1947

Florence Graham


End of Page 90

GIRLS' SCHOLARSHIPS

1924
M. M. Young: Government
1927
H. B. Coleman: Government
1929
T. Rose: Beit Railway
1930
B. St. C. Parry: Government -
M. F. Watson: Government
1932:
A. P. Louw: Beit Railway
J. Gordon-Forbes: Government
1933
D. Rose: Government
1934
M. Bull: Government
1936
D. Rose: Government
R. F. Koster: Government
1937
B. Taylor: Government
1938
H. Ritchie: Government
1945
B. Ball: Government
H. Bosnian Government
P. Hutchinson: Government
1947
F. M. Graham: Government
1958
L. Burton: War Fund
1959
C. O'Donovan: Government
1961
J. Hitchcock: Government
J. Norris: Umtali Municipal
1962
M. Thomas: Government and Rhod. Selection Trust
V. Brown: Government
B. Moody: Umtali Municipal
1964
L. Ross: Mobil
W. Hughes: Government
K. Dahle: Oberlin University, U.S.A.
1966
P. Hughes: Government and Umtali Municipal
V. Vermaak: Methodist Church (U.S.A.) and Government
1967
H. Viljoen: MacDougall and Government
1968
J. Edwards: Government
P. Mirams: Umtali Municipal
1969
J. Tapson: MacDougall and Government

End of Page 91

BOYS' SCHOLARSHIPS

1923
P. J. Coleman: Government
1928
T. A. T. Bosman: Government
1929
E. D. F. Dawson: Government
1931
P. Joubert: Government
1932
H. Olivier: Government
T. A. T. Bosman: Salomon Bequest
1934
J. Joubert: Government
A. Pilgrim: Government
S. Jarvis: Government
G. Orner: Government
1935
P. Joubert: Rhodes Scholar
1936
L. de Bruijn: Government
H. Olivier: Government
1937A. Myburgh: Government
A. Tapson: Government
1938
B. du Preez: Government
S. Jarvis: Salomon Bequest
P. Joubert: Government
1940
L. Muggleton: Government
1942
D. Ruxton: Government
P. Grzicic: Government
1944
C. Kerr: Government
1946
P. de Bruijn: Government
1947
K. L. Anderson: Government
J. Ball: Rhodes Scholar
1948
N. Middlemas: Government
1955
P. W. Mueller: Government
1956
A. Menne: Beit
1959
G. F. Butterfield: Beit
N. W. Price: Rhodesia Railways Eng.
J. W. Smith: Government
1960
N. R. Sheppy: Vacuum Oil
H. W. Rees: Government
1961
V. C. R. Stoecklmeyer: Municipal
1962
B. B. H. King: Rhodes Scholar
R. Cooper : Government—Veterinary
1963
A. J. Dryburgh: Anglo American
G. A. Coleman: Anglo American
J. H. Tylee: Central Statistical
J. H. Tylee: Government
R. J. Oddy: Government
R. J. Oddy: Municipal
G. Verdal Austin: Rhodesian Printing and Publishing
1964
P.Wentworth: Union Corporation
R.S.Guthrie: Government
I. Rudolph: Government
I. Rudolph: Municipal
1965
M.P. Warren: Government
G.A. R. Higgs: Government
1966
D.L. Mentz: Municipal and Government
M.Tselentis: Government
F.J.Blaauw: Government

End of Page 92

F.Reyers: Government
1967
I. Hume: Post graduate Beit
1968
M. Burton: Rhodes Scholar
M. Hilburn: Government
D. Greenway: Government
D. James: Government
T. Dufton: Government Vocational
M Warren : Anglo American
J. Ford: Barclays Bank
F. J. Blaauw: De Beers
1969
D. Groenewald: Beit
H.F. Rapson: Government
P.C. Palframan: Government

End of Page 93

SCHOOL PLAYS

Prior to the production of the first straight play in 1921, the school presented variety concerts. These normally involved the whole school from K.G. to the upper standards. Plays produced:-

1921 "She Stoops to Conquer"
1922 "The Song of Hiawatha"
1923 Proposed play cancelled
1924 "The Wishing Cap"
1925 "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
1926 "Snowdrop and the Seven Dwarfs" "The Tricking of Malvolio"
1927 The Senior School play for this year "The Merchant of Venice" was postponed due to illness. It was replaced by the play "Tomorrow" enacted by the Junior School.
1928 "The Old Bull" "Nickleby at 'Do-the-Boys' Hall"
1929 During this year a concert was presented as was "Macbeth"by the Form IVs on Parents Day.
1930 A School Concert held in the Cecil Hotel.
1931 A Variety Concert produced in the new Beit Hall, along with "The Farce of the worthy Master Pierre Caletin"
1932 "Quality Street"
1933 This year saw the undertaking of the School's first Gilbert and Sullivan opera -"The Pirates of Penzance"
1934 "H.M.S. Pinafore"
1935 "The Price of Coal," "The Dear Departed" and "Trial by Jury"
1936 "The Admirable Crichton"
1937 "The Golden Amulet"
1938 "The Yeomen of the Guard"
1939 "The Rising Generation"
1940 "The Rivals"
1941 "H.M.S. Pinafore"
1942 "The Grand Cham's Diamond," "The Dear Departed" and "Trial by Jury"
1943 "Pirates of Penzance"
1944 "The Ringer"
1945 "The Charcoal Burner's Son," "Robert and Louisa" and "The Boatswain's Mate"
1946 "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
1947 "Quality Street"
1948 '"Iolanthe"
1949 "The Mikado"
1950 "H.M.S.Pinafore"
1951 "The Pirates of Penzance"
1952 "Ruddigore"
1953 "The Mikado"

Umtali Girls' High School:-

1954 "Quality Street"
1955 Third act of "The Importance of being Ernest" included in a variety concert
1956 "Merry Tales of Christmas" incorporated in a Carol Service
1960 ''Red Queen, White Queen"
1961 "Love from Judy"
1962 "Godsend" and "Between the Soup and the Savoury""

End of Page 94

Umtali Boys High School:-

1954 "Children of the Chapel"
1955 "The Proposal", "X = O", "Beyond"
1956 "Trial by Jury," "Everyman"
1957 "Shop at Sly Corner"
1958 "The Housemaster"
1959 "The Happiest Days of Your Life"
1960 "Without the Prince"
1961 "The Pirates of Penzance"
1967 "The Rivals"

Combined productions — U.G.H.S.-U.B.H.S.:-

1962 "The Mikado"
1963 "Pygmalion"
1964 "H.M.S. Pinafore"
1965 "The Importance of being Ernest"
1966 "The Gondoliers"

Marymount College-U.G.H.S.-U.B.H.S.:-

1968 "Iolanthe"

End of Page 95

THE SCHOOL CREST AND COLOUR SYSTEM

Photo 96

The original school crest (No. 1) was designed by a member of the U.H.S. staff, Mr. H. Harrison, about 1919. The Background Mountains represent some actual mountains on the south-west side of Umtali.

Between 1930 and 1940 the mountains were altered (as in No. 2) to conform with heraldic requirements and in 1950 the lion became passant. This crest (No. 3),: designed by Mr. W. S. S. Forsyth, was intended to replace the present blazer badge (No.4) but did not do so.

End of Page 96

The Honours badge (No. 5), designed by Mr. Forsyth, is only in use at U.B.H.S. It is worn on a maroon blazer by School Prefects and Colour men. At U.G.H.S. the School Prefects and Colour women wear a maroon blazer with a maroon badge! of the same design as No. 4. The House Prefects of Boys' High wear a maroon badge on a green blazer, their opposites at Girls' High are the Sub-Prefects who wear a metallic bar badge which denotes their authority - the ordinary school badge is retained. The appropriate tags are worn under the badges. The monitors recognisable by a metallic badge at U.G.H.S. correspondent to the house seniors of U.B.H.S.

The team blazer (up till 1958 a maroon blazer was awarded) of the Boys' School has its counterpart in the green tab at U.G.H.S. (These are awarded to regular team members of a team, e.g., hockey, swimming.) The girls have an additional award in the red tab, which is presented only for outstanding team performances in swimming. The tabs are worn under the blazer badge and carry the name of the sport in which' the award is made.

There are three ties in use at present: the ordinary tie which is green with a yellow diagonal stripe on which is superimposed a thinner chocolate stripe; the plain maroon tie worn by House Prefects of U.B.H.S. and at U.G.H.S. by School Prefects and Colour women; and the Honours tie which has golden lions passant on a maroon background and is worn by School Prefects and Colour men at U.B.H.S.

The School hat band consists of a broad green horizontal stripe, bounded top and bottom by thinner yellow and chocolate stripes.

End of Page 97

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HOUSE SYSTEM
(B - Boarder: D – Day)

GIRLS' HOUSES.
1924: Milner (D), Athlone and Connaught (B).
1925: As above.
1927 1930 1931: Athlone (B) and Milner (D) Connaught dropped. Athlone divided into North (B) and South (B). As for 1930.

BOYS' HOUSES.
Stanley (D) Moffat (D) and Chancellor (B). Chancellor split into "A" and "B" houses. As for 1925.
As for 1925.Chancellor "A" and "B" were replaced by Livingstone

1934: The amalgamation of the boys and girls into Stanley, Moffat and Livingstone (boarders and day scholars combined). Additional house, Fairbridge, included in the house system.
1937: Additional house, Fairbridge, included in the house system.
1954: to present day - U.G.H.S. retained Moffat (red), Livingstone (yellow), Fairbridge (white)/ and Stanley (blue). These houses are all composed of boarders and day scholars.
U.B.H.S. - Hill (D) (green), Livingston (D) (blue), Palmer (B) (gold) and Crawford (B) (red)

THE HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL SONG

It is of interest to note that all of the proposed school songs published (there have been three) incorporate some reference to the surrounding mountains of Umtali.

The first suggested school song appeared in the first edition of "The Borderer" published at Christmas, 1923. There are no records as to who wrote it. It was as follows :-

1. "Young school in a young land what shall we sing of you ?
Sing of forward-looking faces, of the things that are still tools, Sing of the wars untrodden, of the eager pulse of youth, Hearts that inspan for tempting the hinterland of truth.

2. The years shall give us a story, and our mouth shall echo the same,
With softened voices speaking her long-remembered name
We've staked our claims in the future, and long ere our song be old
The earth that we have quarried shall yield up beaten gold.

CHORUS

Bright days and dull days, cuts and falls and bruises, Tries and goals and victories, defeats and cunning ruses, Muddled brains and language, and answers diplomatic, Persuasion to do better, most strikingly emphatic, Ducks and pairs and boundaries, and holidays and lines. You give us these, Umtali, these are your travellers' signs, With sometimes evening pictures of golden flooded hills Whose quiet all our slumber with restful beauty fills.

The above song, as with the one below, was never set to music.

In 1927 a second "Umtali School Song" was printed in the Magazine. Its author was Bliss Nielson, a pupil in Form III. The school felt inferior when visiting teams chanted their songs and for U.H.S. there were no means of retaliating. Therefore the

End of Page 98

pupils were urged to do something about a school anthem and this was the reason for the following song:-

1. 'As a trumpet call
From a castle wall
Rings out our signal cry,
"The steep paths of duty To glory and beauty, In the strength that comes from on high."
2. For strength that is pure,
To serve and endure,
Look up to the mountains blue,
The strength to achieve,
The will to believe the good, and the just, and the true.

CHORUS
Out of the mountains comes forth strength, Nerving the arm as of old, To struggle and fight and win at length Honour more precious than gold!

The 1931 Magazine saw the song, from which the present school song has evolved, published. Called "Ex Montibus" it was written by Mr. George M. Miller of the English Department and the words were put to music by the music teacher Miss Heath. After "having commended itself at one or two sing-songs in the Beit Hall, we hope to publish music and words in a folder at the beginning of 1932 to see if they will really 'catch on' as a School Song." (School Magazine, 1931)

1. 'Her mountains all around us
Shall never tower in vain;
Long, long ago she bound us
With strong affection's chain.
"See now, I give you beauty,
And strength of oak and pine;
Take them, and share my duty,
To watch the Border-line.

2. We keep the Eastern Border;
Like sentinels we stand
Defying each marauder
That would disturb our land.
Lest any stain should shame us,
Our sword shall always shine,
That men may purely name us,
We watch the Border line.

3. Though north and south we'll scatter
On the hurrying stream of Time;
True be our love, no matter
What other hills we climb.
Though outwards bravely turning
New roads to pioneer,
Our hearts shall ne'er cease burning
When the old refrain we hear!

CHORUS
Boys: Shout it out, lift the skies,

End of Page 99

Stamp your feet, my boys;
Girls: Sweetly let your voices rise,
Song means more than noise;
All: Up to heaven " Umtali" fling,
"Umtali " all, "Umtali " sing

By 1937 the middle verse was omitted from the School Song altogether. " Ex Montibus " remained unchanged, even after the immediate splitting of the school in, 1954. It was not until 1960 that Mr. P. Dale-Jones, a member of the staff, altered the words slightly so they would be more suitable for a boys' school. U.G.H.S. later in 1967 also adopted this form of the song.

The modified "Ex Montibus Robur " is:-

The mountains all around us
Shall never tower in vain,
Long, long ago they bound us
With strong affection's chain.
They gave us strength and beauty
In rock and slender pine,
With them we share the duty
To watch the Border Line.

REFRAIN
Shout it out lift the skies
Every heart shall stir
As we hear our anthem rise
"Ex Montibus Robur"
Up to Heaven the Echoes fling,
Umtali all, Umtali sing.

End of Page 100

HOCKEY
CAPTAINS OF HOCKEY

1928 B. Rose 1942 O. Mossop 1956 M. Edwards

1929 E. Hunter 1943 M. Albertyn 1957 R. Scott

1930 E. Hunter 1944 E. Liebermann 1958 R. Scott

1931 H. Cooper 1945 D. Timms 1959 E. Edwards

1932 A. Brent 1946 J. Timms 1960 E. Edwards

1933 E. Speares 1947 L. de Villiers 1961 J. Norris

1934 D. Edwards 1948 F. Dreyer 1962 M. Norris

1935 D. Edwards 1949 J. Kirkland 1963 M. Norris

1936 P. Procter 1950 H. Arthur 1964 M. Macqueen

1937 J. Pascoe 1951 N. du Plessis 1965 P. Jeffery

1938 J. Pascoe 1952 I. Davies 1966 P. Grobler

1939 H. Purse 1953 J. Northcote 1967 J. Edwards

1940 B. Lowth 1954 J. Shevill 1968 N. Gordon

1941 B. Lowth 1955 A. Anderson

The girls took to hockey keenly during the early 1920s for two reasons — (a) because it was a definite improvement on croquet and (b) because the hostel life was so boring - the 1923 "Borderer" says: "The great hobby amongst the girls seems to be to invent marvellous and intricate schemes by which they may count the days that remain of the term." The earliest reference we have to hockey was in 1924 when a House competition was arranged. But until 1928 there were no Town teams playing the game and so no matches could be arranged. However, in 1927 the girls played a game against the boys and were beaten — "a fact which they attributed to the boys free use of the hockey sticks."

In 1928 the girls played two games against Umtali ladies but lost both. Hockey made tremendous strides during that year and the "Borderer" mentions that keenness and regular practice were the chief causes. A new hockey field was completed in 1930 and the game showed yet more improvement. The School defeated Town ladies for the first time in history and Eleanor Hunter, Beryl Parry and Hazel Webster were awarded colours. The team played a record number of seven games in 1931 and the following year real progress was made. The School visited Salisbury and played against both the "A'' and "B" teams of the Girls' High School. They lost to the "A" team 3-1 and drew with the "B" team three all. Jasmine Gordon-Forbes, Ruth Tapson and Jean McGibbon were mentioned in the "Borderer" as being outstanding.

Unfortunately the School was unable to play the Girls' High School, Salisbury, in 1933 or 1934 as the Salisbury girls developed measles the first year and chicken pox the second. Finally a game was arranged in 1935 and Umtali was thrashed 11-2. However, the School did win the local ladies' league and Doris Edwards, the captain, was selected as centre-forward for Manicaland in the senior inter-provincial tournament. Doris had already been selected in 1934 with Joan Procter and Doreen Edmonds. In 1936 the School again won the local league but were again thrashed by the Salisbury Girls' High. In 1937 a new hockey field was built and the old field was used as a soccer field for the Junior School.

Despite difficulties in obtaining kit, hockey continued to flourish during the war years and in 1941 the School defeated both the Salisbury Convent (6-0) and the Salisbury Girls' High (2-1). Betty Lowth led the team very well and was the outstanding player. The School drew with the Girls' High in 1944 and defeated them again the following year.

End of Page 101

After the war Umtali continued to hold her own in hockey and in 1949 went on tour. The tour was the climax of a very successful season during which the School won the Ballantyne Cup - the winner of the Mashonaland inter-schools' competition.

At home during the season Umtali defeated Salisbury Girls' High (6-2 and 8-0), Queen Elizabeth (5-1) and Salisbury Convent (7-0). They also convincingly won their games against Town sides and won two of the three games on tour. Their only defeat during the season was at the hands of Chaplin. Jean Kirkland, Audrey Palmer, Shirley Haddon and Dorothy Webb were awarded colours for their outstanding displays during the season.

In 1950 a Rhodesian inter-schools' tournament was started and Umtali did extremely well. In 1951 the first team played 19 games, defeating all the Rhodesian schools except Chaplin, and won the. ladies' league. Due to the fact that Town and Old Borderers could not raise teams and because of the Centenary Exhibition, few games could be played in 1953. Five girls, however, were selected for the Manicaland-Mashonaland Schools' side.

After the separation the School's hockey sides continued to do well. In the inter-provincial tournament of 1955, the School, playing as Manicaland, defated both Mashonaland and Matabeleland Combined Schools but lost to Midlands. Yvonne Johnstone, Marlene Ferreira and Myrna Edwards were selected to play for the Rhodesian Schoolgirls' hockey team. It was unfortunate that Elsa Dale, the School goalkeeper who had played for the Rhodesian Schools' team in 1954, left school before the inter-provincial matches were played.

In 1956 the School team was unbeaten and Brenda James and Myrna Edwards were selected for the Rhodesian Schoolgirls' side. Esme Edwards was chosen for the Rhodesian Schools' side in 1957 but in 1958 only made the final trial. Joy Yeo, Jacqueline Rose and Robin Scott were also picked for this trial but only Joy made the final side. This seemed a little unfair as the School had defeated the Combined Mashonaland Schools (3-2) and Matabeleland Schools (5-1) before going down to Midlands. Esme Edwards, however, was chosen for the Rhodesian Schoolgirls' side in 1959, Jeanne Norris, Beverley Simpson and Barbara Scott being chosen for the same side. The School was also represented by three others in the final trial.

1960 was another magnificent season. This year Esme Edwards and Jeanne Norris were chosen for the Rhodesian Schoolgirls' touring side. Barbara Scott was named as a non-travelling reserve. Unfortunately there was one sad moment during the year when Mrs. McGrath left after many years as hockey, tennis and swimming coach at the School. Under her the School had one of the finest hockey reputations in Rhodesia.

Despite the fact that only three girls from the 1960 team returned in 1961 the School did have a fairly successful season. Six girls made the final trial for the Rhodesian Schools side, Jeanne Norris being chosen as a travelling reserve for the team. Nola Howard and Lorraine Campbell were selected as non-travelling reserves.

However, since 1962 the School hockey has produced nothing outstanding but at the same time has been fairly successful. Each year we have had one or two girls in the Rhodesian Schoolgirl trials but no one has made the final side.

End of Page 102

In 1967 the School made a very successful tour to Johannesburg. And finally, we must extend our thanks to Mrs. K. Smith for her help towards the School's hockey

Mention must be made of those girls who have continued to do well after leaving school. Special congratulations must be extended to Betty Lowth (as Betty Clack) who gained her Springbok colours at the International Women's Hockey Conference at Folkstone. She also played against England the following year, as did Fern Dreyer. Fern then went to the International Conference in Australia in 1956. Marlene Ferreira (as Marlene Harding) played in the International Conference in America in 1964. She also represented South Africa against England. Yvonne Johnstone (as Yvonne Robinson) gained her Springbok hockey colours in 1967 at the International meeting in Germany. At this same tournament Audrey Palmer was selected as a Springbok umpire. In her earlier years she had represented Rhodesia.

End of Page 103

Photo 104
U.H.S. Girls Hockey Team, 1942
(Date was actually 1935)

End of Page 104

Photo 105 A
UBHS December 1968

Photo 105 B
U.G.H.S. 1969

SWIMMING

Swimming began with the new town swimming pool in 1926. The girls would swim on one afternoon during the week and boys on another. According to the Easter, 1926 copy of the "Borderer," "it was a great surprise to1 find such a large number of children could swim and dive." In the Christmas, 1926 copy it was said that the girls attending swimming lessons "show keenness and work hard to improve their skill." A. Norris and B. Rose were mentioned as being outstanding swimmers, and, indeed, the girls felt proud in defeating the boys in a team race during the gala which was held at the Municipal Baths in 1926. However, it must be added that the boys were confined to breast stroke! In 1927 Eileen Critten became the first girl in the town to pass the stiff life-saving test necessary to earn the Bronze Medallion. In 1929 Molly Watson, who was the diving champion, was selected as the first swimming captain. In 1931 Helen Cooper became the first Victrix Ludorum in the School's swimming history and the following year it was won by Jasmine Gordon-Forbes. Jasmine was the swimming captain in 1931 and 1932, the diving champion in 1931 and she and T. Rutherford in 19321 became the first school girls to gain the Award of Merit for Life Saving in Umtali.

The galas at this time were very different from today. For the girls there were 11 events made up of handicap, beginners, trick and crocodile races as well as diving and plunging competitions. The School swimming was dominated by Mona Harrold between 1933 and 1936 and she spear-headed a side which swam in the Umtali Swimming Club Gala. However, because of the distance, the School was unable to send a team to Bulawayo to compete in the Inter-School Gala.

Backstroke was introduced in 1937, freestyle having been the only style practised in the galas prior to this one. June Hodgson, who was senior girl champion in 1937 and 1938, was an outstanding back stroke swimmer. During the War the children rarely got the chance to swim and the War years copy of the "Borderer" mentions that the 1945 gala was very successful "considering there had been no swimming at all in the previous year." Also in 1945 the School competed at the Inter-Schools gala in Bulawayo and finished fourth out of seven schools competing.

The next four years failed to produce any outstanding swimming although Inter-House galas were very enjoyable affairs

But since 1959 after the completion of the School swimming bath, the School has done outstandingly well in swimming. A great effort was made with coaching and in 1960 the School reached the finals of the Inter-Schools gala where they came fifth. Earlier the Mashonaland-Manicaland Inter-Schools gala had been held in the Municipal pool. One outstanding achievement during the year was by Sarie Bezuidenhout who came first in the girls under 16 one metre diving at the Federal Championships. Sarie became the first U.G.H.S. schoolgirl to be awarded her Rhodesian colours when she was selected for the Federal team to compete in the South African Championships in January, 1961, and has represented Rhodesia since then, including the Tokyo Olympic games in 1964.

Shelley Butler was selected to swim against the Australia Touring swimmers in March, 1961, and the following year represented Rhodesia at the Empire Games. Shelley also swam for Rhodesia in the South African Championships in 1962, 1963 and 1964 and in 1965 was selected as captain.

End of Page 106

In the Rhodesian Inter-School finals, Umtali was fourth in 1963, third in 1964 and sixth in 1965. During this time Shelley Butler dominated the scene but several others also did well. Lorraine Laing did very well at backstroke and in 1964, the year after leaving School, was selected for Rhodesia.

In 1965 Patricia Butler and Cynthia Edward represented Rhodesia at the South African Championships and they repeated this achievement in 1966. 1966 was a highly successful season. The School finished first in the Northern (A Section) Inter-Schools gala and then a week later travelled to Bulawayo to complete in the finals. Here they finished second, nine points behind the winning school, Townsend.

In 1967 the School brought back the Rhodesian Inter-Schools Cup for the first time, a feat they have repeated in 1968 and 1969. It is undoubtedly team effort which has produced these results but mention must be made of those who have represented Rhodesia in the South African Swimming Championships. In 1967 Paddy Butler and Barbara Black as swimmers and Cynthia Edward and Karen Talbert as divers were chosen. Paddy was then selected to represent Rhodesia in a triangular test match between Canada, South Africa and Rhodesia. In 1967 Barbara Black, Marilyn Burton and Karen Talbert were selected and these three and Janice Collett were chosen in 1969. Marilyn Burton was also selected for Rhodesia in the South Africa games.

End of Page 107

TENNIS
CAPTAINS OF TENNIS

1929 H. Scott 1943 T. Mossop 1957 R. Scott

1930 B. Parry 1944 E. Liebermann 1958 R. Scott

1931 R. Tapson 1945 E. Liebermann & D. Timms 1959 B. Scott

1932 R. Tapson 1946 J. Timms 1960 E. Edwards

1933 S. Tapson 1947 L. de Villiers 1961 N. Howard

1934 M. Burton 1948 F. Dreyer 1962 G. Juster

1935 D. Edmonds 1949 A. Palmer 1963 P. Thomas

1936 D. Lowth 1950 J. Ade 1964 H. Edwards

1937 D. Lowth 1951 N. du Plessis 1965 P. Jeffery

1938 J. Pascoe 1952 F. Dreyer 1966 J. Edwards

1939 P. Lark 1953 F. Dreyer 1967 J. Edwards

1940 B. Lowth 1954 F. Popp 1968 N. Wilkinson

1941 B. Lowth 1955 M. Ferreira

1942 O. Mossop 1956 M. Edward

In the 1923 "Borderer" mention is made of a tennis tournament arranged by Mrs. Freeman for the hostel girls against some of the hostel boys. Under "Hostel Notes (Girls)" we read: "We were up early for the occasion as we had heard that our expected guests were due to arrives at about 8 a.m. But we were doomed to disappointment for they did not arrive till about 9.30 a.m. What else could you expect from boys! But perhaps it was not their fault. Not long- after they arrived, having chosen their partners from amongst the fair bevy of maidens that clustered round, the tournament started and everything was progressing swimmingly when down came the rain. It was very disappointing but nevertheless we managed to amuse ourselves by playing dumb charades on the verandah of the Annexe."

In 1924 a new tennis court was opened and the two courts were occupied by the girls of the two town Houses on four days of the week. Mention was also made of a successful inter-house match and a game against the ladies of the Park Club when "the School team acquitted itself so creditably." The girls played the Park ladies again in 1927 but were easily defeated. The following year the School championships were held, the singles being won by Anna Louw. During the year the standard improved greatly thanks to the good coaching of Miss Hamerton and Miss Clarke. The school, however, was defeated by the staff. In 1929 Meikles presented a cup for the singles championship which was won again by Anna Louw.

Several matches were played against the Town team in 1930 and the following year the School entered a team in the inter-school championships which were held in Salisbury. The School was defeated in the first round but nevertheless learned a great deal. They also entered as a club in the inter-club matches of the Manicaland Tennis Board and gained third place. In 1934 the inter-school tournament was to have been held in Umtali, but owing to an outbreak of measles the arrangements had to be cancelled.

By 1936 eight courts were in use throughout the year and three new ones were completed in 1937. 1937 was a very successful season. The team played 12 matches against Town sides as well as a match against Salisbury Convent, Umtali was thrashed in this match but Daphne Lowth, the captain, played outstanding tennis and won all her singles and doubles.

The 1938 "Borderer" mentions that "every girl in the team this year has, with constant practice, improved her game." The School entered a team in the

End of Page 108

Mashonaland Junior tennis championships in 1939 and N. Raynor reached the semi-finals. However, like the other sports, tennis suffered during the war years and it was not until 1945 that Umtali was able to enter the inter-school tennis championships again. It was therefore remarkable that Umtali won the tournament. During that same weekend Jane Timms defeated her sister, Daphne, to win the Southern Rhodesian Junior singles title. The Timms sisters also reached the doubles finals but were defeated. They were congratulated in the "Borderer" on "their spirit throughout all the matches and their ability to take a beating as well as a victory."

For the next few years’ tennis progressed quietly, with the School more than holding their own against their opponents. However, in 1952 the railway fares were raised and the number of matches was cut down. These years before the separation of the schools produced some good players, Jill Ade, Frances Dreyer, Jill Northcote and Yvonne Trubi being the most outstanding.

Unfortunately tennis was somewhat neglected after the separation of the school. In 1955 only one inter-school game was played, due mainly to the polio epidemic. 1956 was a slightly more successful season and one bright spot occurred when Myrna Edwards and Brenda James reached the final of the doubles competition in the Rhodesian Junior tournament. Then in 1958 three girls, Joy Yeo, and Barbara and Robin Scott, were selected for the Rhodesian Junior trials, Barbara reaching the semi-finals of the Rhodesian Junior singles championship the following year.

Also in 1959 Mr. C. V. Irvine, the well-known Rhodesian tennis expert, visited the school to coach and returned the following year. Probably due to him 1960 was a very successful season. The School, entering as Manicaland, achieved second place in the Brookes Trophy inter-provincial tournament among the five provinces that entered.

Barbara Scott was included in the Junior Southern Rhodesian team which toured Northern Rhodesia, and Barbara and Nola Howard were asked to take part in the Rhodesian Junior tennis trials.

Between 1961 and 1966 the standard of tennis was not all that high, but the School continued to enjoy its tennis and was very grateful for the invaluable coaching of Mrs. L. Holland, an ex-Rhodesian champion.

The water shortage reached its climax in 1966 when the "Tennis Notes" in the School magazine began: "Alas! Poor U.G.H.S. tennis!" --this was because the season was not even opened

During 1967 and 1968 the School saw the gradual re-building of their tennis and thanks to Mrs. K. Smith, amongst others, tennis is a firmly established sport once again.

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GIRLS' OTHER SPORTS

In the early 1930s cricket was quite a popular sport with the girls and a match was played against the Salisbury Girls' High.

Netball, too, was one of the earliest sports but today basketball has taken over. Indeed, the School is proud that already two Old Girls - Louise Souter (now Polenakis) and Viv Holmes have represented Rhodesia in this comparatively new sport.

A badminton club was established in 1966, a court being painted in the gymnasium and excellent racquets being provided by the School.

Athletics was a prominent sport in the school until 1958 and some good performances were set up. Myrna Edwards (1956) and Yvonne Johnstone (1954) both ran the 100 yards in 11.4 seconds and Jessie Waring jumped a cred'table 4ft. 71in. in the high jump (1955).

Gymnastics too has aroused interest from time to time but hockey, tennis and swimming have maintained their prominence as the main sports played by the girls.

ATHLETICS

On Saturday, 11th April, 1959, the Umtali Boys' High School cinder track was declared open by W. R. du Bois Esq., President of the Southern Rhodesia Athletic and Cycling Association at that time. This short ceremony brought an idea born in 1956 to reality. Despite financial worries, amateur workmanship and conflicting advice, the School possesses a cinder track drawn up to international specification. Chief credit for this enterprise must go to Mr. J. B. Clarke and it is very fitting that the track is now called after him. Credit must also go to some members of the staff and the many schoolboys who worked on it over a two-year period. It is with pride that we can quote Mr. Lyle Bennet (Head Coach, Central Michigan University, U.S.A. at the time of his visit in 1959) as saying that the track compares very favourably with American High School tracks. Perhaps we may be permitted to feel that our School Sports programme, which embraces 33 relay races and 64 individual events, also compares favourably with similar American and British programmes. Before blowing our own trumpets too loudly, it is a sobering thought that some forty years ago there was a cinder track in Umtali. Admittedly it was not drawn to international specification (it was a triangular 300 yards track), but today there remains no trace of it.

Those people who attended the School before the First World War can remember sports meetings being held on the Drill Hall field and on the U.A.A. on Empire Days. The Caledonian Society also staged an annual sports meeting in Umtali. However, our earliest recorded times date back to 1923. In that year Piet Viljoen ran the 880 yards in 2min. 12sec, and high-jumped 5ft. 3in. These school records were to stand for 16 and 7 years respectively. It is of interest to note that immediately after leaving school Piet recorded two minutes dead for the 880 yards at the annual Caledonian Sports. In the same year Lewis McDowall set records for the 220 yards (23.8sec.) and the 440 yards (54.4sec). In the following year he ran the 100 yards in 10.6sec.

In 1925 Robbie Ackermann jumped 19ft. 6in. in the Long Jump. In the same year, or soon after, he caused a sensation by racing Estcourt Palmer's race horse, "Traveller,"

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over 100 yards at the Caledonian meeting. Robbie, despite a query, was judged to have won the race. In 1927 and 1928, Fred Binnie won the 100 yards, 200 yards and 440 yards. He went to Glasgow High School and represented the School over these distances.

These early meetings were held on the town field (the present U.S.C.) but ita 1930 the School sports were held on the Chancellor ground for the first time. At this meeting St. John Burton won all the Junior events. This athlete, and his great rival, Roy Mackintosh, were to dominate the School athletics for the next few years. Burton won the Senior Victor Ludorum Cup in 1931 and 1932. In 1933 he and Mackintosh tied, but for some unexplained reason an extra race was run (in which Burton did not compete) and this gave Mackintosh the cup by one point. Mackintosh easily retained the cup in 1934 after Burton had left School. Both these athletes were very versatile as can be seen from the following results. (School records are shown in brackets); St. John Burton won at various times the 880 yards, the 120 yards hurdles, the 220 yards, the Hop, Step and Jump the 100 yards (10.6sec), the 440 yards (54.4sec.) and the High (5ft. 6iin.). Roy Mackintosh won at various times the Long Jump, the 100 yards (10.6sec), the High Jump (5ft. 6£in.), the 120 yards hurdles (16.2sec.) and the Hop, Step and Jump (42ft. 8in.). After leaving school, Burton made his name in Rhodesian Senior Athletics. In 1936 he won the Rhodesian 100 yards title in l0.0sec, equalling the record, and set new records for the 220 yards (22.4sec.) and the 440 yards (50.6sec). In 1937 he lowered the 440 yards record to 50.2sec. In 1939 he again won the 100 yards, 220 yards and 440 yards titles, and represented Rhodesia at the South African Championships. Here he was beaten over the 440 yards by South Africa's great runner Dennis Shore. Then came the War and St. John exchanged his spikes for army boots, so ending a great career. The promise shown by Roy Mackintosh was never to be fulfilled, for soon after leaving school he died tragically from septicaemia.

In 1933 shot putt was introduced using a 161b. shot. Ken Gray won the event at 33ft. 9in., and in 1934 he increased this to 34ft. 11in. This record was to stand until 1950, and then it was bettered only with a 141b. shot. In 1932 and 1934 the School gained third place in the Inter-School Meeting. In 1935 the School won the Shield for the first Time. In this year Ned Parks raised the School High Jump record to 5ft. 8in. In 1936 the sports were held on the Upper Chancellor field and Billy Rose lowered the 100 yards record to 10.4sec. and the 220 yards to 23.4sec, times which were to stand for 19 and 17 years respectively. The 100 yards time was equalled by Rex Lark in 1937, and he broke the Inter-School 120 yards hurdles record with 15.6sec. In a Town Athletic Meeting, Rex Lark ran the 44o yards in 51.2sec. Two years later J. Evans broke P. Viljoen's long-standing 880 yards record with 2min. 10.2sec. At the same meeting Eric Klette cleared 5ft. 10in. to break the High Jump record.

The war years produced one notable athlete, Peter Grzicic, who long-jumped 21ft. 0in., and lowered the 120 yards hurdles record to 15.6sec. This record (the 120 yards, 2ft. 9in. hurdles) was brought down to 15.3sec. by Bill Raynor in 1950. The Sports Meeting of 1950 saw a spate of new records, some bordering on national times, but unfortunately the track was discovered to be 30 yards short! In 1951 Eden Simon became the first athlete to break 5 minutes for the mile. His record stood at 4min. 52sec. Pole vault was introduced in 1952 in the open division. In 1953, Tony Pettifor. brought the 440 yards time down to 53.5sec, and the 880 yards to 2min. 4.5sec. (In the 1957-58 season he was selected for the Rhodesian Cross Country team). Also in 1953 Ian Forrest ran the 220 yards in 23.2sec.

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In 1954 when the Boys' High School moved to the site at Tiger Kloof, the Sports were held on the Main Field which was large enough to accommodate a full 440 yards track. The programme was enlarged to cater for all age groups. Despite a certain amount of opposition the Victor Ludorum cups were dispensed with and re-introduced as relay cups. Past results had shown that the cup went to a mediocre performer with a string of low standard wins, and the best athlete of the year was not considered on merely one or two outstanding performances. However, several cups have since been presented for individual performances. There are now eight individual cups, four cross country cups, five relay cups and the Ade Cup for Total Points.

Tony Leppan, who presented the cup for the most improved athlete, accomplished in 1955 one of the finest all round performances recorded at School's Sports Meetings. He set new records for the 100 yards (l0.0sec), the Long Jump (21ft. 5|in.), 120 yards hurdles (15.4 sec), 220 yards hurdles (27.7sec.) and came within 3 inches of Roy Mackintosh's Hop, Step and Jump record set in 1933. At the same meeting Ian Hume, one of the best stylists that the School has produced, ran the Under 16, 110 yards hurdles in 14.8secs. 1956 saw Ben van der Linde add the Open, sprint records to his Under 15 and Under 16, titles with a 9.8sec. 100 yards, and the 220 yards in 22.6sec. On these performances he was selected to represent Southern Rhodesia, but rugby commitments prevented him from competing. (Ben went on to captain Rhodes University and ran for Eastern Province and Rhodesia). In 1957 Erich Wessels threw the discus 136ft. llin. and put the 141b. shot 41ft. 9in. In 1958, Patrick Hill won the 110 yards hurdles in 14.4sec. and the 220 yards hurdles in 27.5sec. Tony Myburgh threw the javelin 179ft. lin. and Altham Sutcliffe vaulted 10ft. 3in.

The first meeting on the Cinder Track, in 1959, got off to a good start with the first race, the Under 13, Hurdles Relay, being won in record time. In all 24 records were broken and three were equalled. Most of the records were established by the Under age groups, the open division being sadly below standard. The three-quarter mile steeplechase was introduced and this was won by Mike Griffiths. In I960 Tom Atkins broke the record for this event with a time of 3min. 53.5sec. In that year Des Fourie equalled the 440 yards record (53.5sec.) and Matthys Greyvensteyn broke the 110 yards hurdles record (14.1sec.) and equalled the 220 yards hurdles (27.5sec).

In 1961 Andy Marner broke the 440 yards record (53.4sec.) and Roy Coltman leapt 5ft. 10in. to set a new high jump record. He did even better at the Inter-School Meeting held on our track by jumping 6ft. - the first Rhodesian schoolboy to clear this "barrier." This was the first time that the Inter-High School meeting had been held in Umtali, and Umtali athletes did better than expected.

In 1962 Palmer House won the Inter-House competition through a victory in the last relay of the day. It was fitting that Roy Coltman came through with a fine burst in the last leg of the relay to give Palmer their win, as this was undoubtedly his day. He shattered Roy Mackintosh's 1933 Hop, Step and Jump record by nearly 3ft. with a magnificent 45ft. 5in. He had already bettered his own High Jump record with a leap of 6ft. 1/2in., and in addition won the Long Jump, the Javelin and the 100 yards. Other records in the Open division went to Tom Atkins with 10ft. 6in. in the Pole vault, Tim Wood with 24.4sec. for the 220 yards hurdles and Ramsay Powel with 4min. 46.8sec. for the Mile. In the Inter-School Meeting, Mike van Zyl threw the discus 135ft. 7in., and Atkins and Marner set personal best records in the Pole vault and the 440 yards respectively. Unfortunately Coltman had an off day but still won the High Jump.

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Coltman and Marner again took the honours in 1963. The former increased his High Jump record to 6ft. lin. and leapt a record 22ft. 2in. in the Long Jump. Marner ran the 440 yards in 51.0sec. and lowered the hurdles time to 23.7sec. Unfortunately Coltman injured his foot and was not able to compete in the Inter-High School Meeting. However, at this meeting Marner ran an excellent 50.4sec. 440 yards, only 1/10 of a second outside the Inter-School record. Had he not slowed down on the back straight he might well have come close to breaking 50sec.

Another spate of records were to fall in 1964. Neil Kriel took the 880 yards (2min. 3.4sec), and the Mile (4min. 46.7sec.) records, Graham Hobbins the Javelin (187ft. 91in.) and Tienie Steyn the Shot (44ft. 9in.). In the Inter-Schools meeting Kriel ran two excellent races to lower his personal best records in the 880 yards (2min. 1.5sec.) the Mile (4min. 36.5sec). Hobbins and Steyn both set new Inter-School records; the former in the Discus (144ft. 1in.) and the latter in the Shot (47ft. 8in.). In 1965 Kriel set School records in the 880 yards (2min. lsec.) and the Mile (4min. 42.7sec.) while Steyn set a school record for the Shot (48ft. 8iin.). Other records fell to Terence Bragge in the 120 yards Hurdles (l0.0sec.) and Dave Jackson in the Pole Vault (10ft. 9in.).

1966 was to prove a busy year. Besides our own sports we were privileged to stage a Triangular meeting on our track and, in addition, we competed twice in Salisbury, at the Mashonaland Junior Championships and at the Inter-School Meeting. During the season Steyn set a new school record in the shot (49ft. 0in.). However, at the Mashonaland Junior Championships Grant-Fletcher achieved a personal best of lift. At the Inter-Schools Meeting Umtali won the Open, U/16 and U/15 shot events and for Mr. J. B. Clarke, the School’s coach, it was a cherished ambition realised.

In 1967 and 1968 Umtali dominated the Inter-School Meetings. During this period a number of records were broken. In 1967 at the Schools Sports Doug. Schorr set records in the Shot (49ft. 31in.) and the Discus (144ft. 0in.). However, in the Inter-School sports Schorr broke the 50ft. barrier with a fine putt of 50ft. 9 1/2in. Also in 1967 Nick Oosthuizen set new school records in the 880 yards (lmin. 59.6sec.) and the Mile (4min. 36.6sec). At the Inter-School meeting he ran a personal best time of 1min. 59.2sec. for the 880 yards. In the same season Pete Bouwer set a new Rhodesia U/15 record in the 880 yards (2min. 6.8sec.) while competing in the Inter-Provincial at Gwelo.

In 1968 the School easily won the Inter High School Relay Meeting with the U/16 team capturing the limelight. In 12 events they set 7 records and won 3 others. A small contingent from the school again did well at the Mashonaland Junior Championships and Pete Grant- Fletcher won the first ever Inter-School Pentathlon meeting, which was staged at Fort Victoria. At the School Sports Grant-Fletcher raised his Pole vault record to lift. 6Jin. Neil Sparks, one of the most consistent athletes produced by the School, had another good season. Since he came to the School in 1963 he has never won less than 3 events at a 'School Sports meeting and every year has won an event at an Inter-School meeting. During his career he has also set up new Inter-School records in the U/13, U/14, and U/15 High Jump events.

Umtali is now a major force in the Rhodesian Schools' athletic world. Indeed, the School has dominated the last two Inter-School meetings; gaining 15 first, 12 seconds and 14 thirds in 1967 and 14 first, 12 seconds, 6 thirds and 9 fourths in 1968. Undoubtedly the enthusiasm and the long hours of training by the boys have paid dividends and the future looks very rosy as the present crop of junior athletes show great promise. But the greatest share of the credit must be given to Mr. J. B.

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Clarke who has coached athletics at the School since 1952. Space has not permitted mention of all the fine athletes who learnt their trade under Mr. Clarke, but there are three who came under him that have set records that must rank amongst the finest ever achieved by Rhodesian school boys. These are Ben van der Linde's 100 yards record, Roy Coltman's High Jump record and Doug Schorr's shot putt record.

It is sad that 1968 brought to an end Mr. Clarke's long association with the School and we wish him well at Plumtree. He has been one of the finest sports masters at the School and it is fitting, as I said earlier, that the School's cinder track was renamed the J. B. Clarke Field in 1968. In 1969 the School's athletic records will go over to the metric system and we hope that many new records will be broken.

The following Cups are awarded at our Sports Meetings:-

Old Borderer's award: Best Junior Athlete Mile
Powel Cup: Mile
Van Heerden Cup: High Jump
Cup Smith Trophies: Decathlon
Sparks Cup: Best Junior Performance
Harris Shield: Best Track Event Performance
Stratton Cup: Best Field Event Performance
Leppan Cup: Most Improved Athlete
Holloway Cup: Junior Cross Country
Old Mutual Cup: Under Sixteen Cross Country
Palmer Cup: Senior Cross Country
Liebbrandt Shield : Total Cross Country
Du Bois Cup: Most Points U/13 Relays
Bruce Gledhill Cup: Most Points U/14 Relays
Taylor Cup: Most Points U/15 Relays
McLeod Elliot Cup: Most Points U/16 Relays
Whitton Cup: Most Points Open Relays
Ade Cup: Total Points

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Photo 115 A
Athletics Team 1967

Photo 116
Swimming Team 1968

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Photo 117
Hockey Team 1945
Back Row: C. de Villiers - E. Hacking - D. Timms (Capt) Mrs. McGuffe - L. de Villiers - E. Chalmers - A Page
Seated: J Timms - S. Ziehl - S Swears - A. Page
In Front: C. Chalmers

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CRICKET

Cricket was officially started as a School sport in March, 1919, and some 45 boys turned up to practice. Cricket consisted of net practices and matches between school sections. .Some of the boys played at the Police Camp early in the season, at the invitation of Major Tomlinson. The cricket season went on longer than usual and I quote from an old School record: "As the boys are still keen and the weather still warm the season will be prolonged till after Easter."

Later in 1919, the Municipality granted a sports ground which was used by the senior boys. The juniors played on the smaller ground.

The earliest reference we have to cricket matches was in 1923 with games being played against Town "A", Railways " B" and Old Crocks. T. Gilbert and T. Viljoen as batsmen, and L. McDowall and P. Coleman as bowlers, were mentioned as having performed well. Gilbert, who captained the team efficiently, had an average of 41.25 in 1924, while Coleman took 29 wickets at just under 5 runs apiece. Mr. F. Taylor and Capt. Lindsell both presented bats and keen interest resulted in trying to win them.

In 1925 a House System was introduced and eight games were played during the 1925-26 season. D. Scott was the outstanding bowler and against Old Crocks he took 7 wickets for 6 runs. Both he and W. Swanepoel, an all rounder, were awarded colours, probably the first recipients in the School's cricket history. However, for the next few years cricket was restricted to net practices and the occasional game on the U.A.A., because of the building of a new ground.

In 1927 the first inter-school game was played in which the School was defeated outright by Prince Edward. The following year they were again trounced but some consolation was received in L. Orpen's fine bowling figures of 5 wickets for 45 in a total of 201. In 1927 Orpen became the first Umtali boy to be selected for Manicaland whilst still at school.

In 1929 Umtali had a more successful season and won its first interschool game when 'St. George's were defeated by 145 runs. This was largely due to a fine knock of 90 by Ronnie Michell who was later to represent Rhodesia. In the same season Umtali tied with Prince Edward. Batting first Prince Edward. were dismissed for 84, G. Juster bowling very well to take five for eleven. Umtali's innings of 84 was held together by R. Taylor who made 30, the only person to reach double figures. To end off the season the School played Old Borderers and won easily by an innings and 125 runs. During this match the first century opening partnership was also made -101 by Michell and Milton Holman. The total score of 368 was a record. The game was watched by a large number of spectators and afterwards the Headmaster offered to present a bat to Taylor in recognition of his fine innings.

In March, 1930, the School achieved their first victory over Prince Edward - by a margin of 81 runs. Taylor hit an excellent 89 and followed this up with three wickets for 38 runs. The following weekend the team travelled 535 miles to play Plumtree. The School was outclassed and were defeated by an innings and 29 runs. Taylor again batted outstandingly and hit an undefeated 62 out of a first innings total of 96. Michell also shone, taking 5 for 68 and making 44 in the second innings.

Michell was outstanding in the 1930-31 season and took 53 wickets (average 9.7) and made 479 runs (average 479). He also hit two centuries for the School. In 1930

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he hit a superb 163 not out against Town, the highest individual score ever recorded for the school. Then in 1931 he slammed a swashbuckling 129 not out against Crusaders which included 6 sixes (3 off successive balls) and 16 fours. He was selected on a couple of occasions for Manicaland while still at school and in 1931 he took 5 wickets for 16 runs and made top score of 35 against a strong Mashonaland side. Holman also had a fine season in 1930 and hit a good 102 not out against Mr. Gale's XI. The other century maker during the season was Taylor who made 102 against Old Boys - his second "ton" against them. Incidentally, in this match Michell was in devastating form with the ball and returned figures of 7 for 14 and 5 for 26.

Between 1931 and 1935 the School cricket went from strength to strength and produced several outstanding players. Charlie Brown, who captained the team for three years, had an average of 90.5 in 1931-32 and hit a glorious 81 against Prince Edward when he led the side to victory in 1934. These years also produced a lively fast bowler, J. Speares, who took 8 for 27 and 4 for 31 against St. George's in 1932. R. Mackintosh and St. J. Burton, more well known for their athletic rivalry, both did well in cricket. In 1933 Mackintosh bowled the School to victory over Prince Edward and in the same year Burton took 6 wickets for 9 runs against Umtali District.

W. James dominated the cricket scene in 1936. In town matches he took many wickets and also weighed in with some useful knocks, including a memorable 117 against the Staff. The School beat Prince Edward again, mainly due to a fine all round performance by James but were thrashed by St. George's. In 1937 W. Rose with a fine all round display helped the School to victory over Prince Edward. He took 5 for 17 and 4 for 13 as well as hitting a good 39 which included 4 hefty sixes. When the School played Town in 1937 they lost their first 5 wickets for 0 runs but they recovered and managed to scramble to a total of 91. Between 1938 and 1940 J. Godfrey did very well as an all rounder. He turned in some excellent bowling figures including 7 for 22 (against Mr. Moll's XI, 1938) and 7 for 33 (against Prince Edward, 1939) as well as being very consistent with the bat.

In 1941 the School was thrashed by both St. George's and Prince Edward but a fine 67 not out by F. Chevalier saved them from outright defeat by the latter school. In the same year Allan Wilson made their first visit to Umtali and were defeated by an innings. In 1942 Billy Clarke took the only hat trick recorded by the School 1st XI but despite his performance Umtali was defeated by Prince Edward. Later in the season Clarke took 7 wickets for 24 runs against St. George's enabling the School to win by one run.

Because of the withdrawal of railway concessions between 1942 and 1944 the School's matches were restricted to Army and Town sides. However, in November, 1943, the School travelled up to Salisbury to play St. George's, Prince Edward and Allan Wilson over a long weekend. A team of Past and Present pupils of the school travelled to Beira to play Beira Old Crocks in the same year.

1945-46 was a very successful season, the School winning 4 of the 6 matches they played, including two wins over Allan Wilson and one each over Prince Edward and St. George's. L. Jellicoe and C. Graham were the outstanding batsmen whilst M. Wright and E. Friend turned in some good bowling figures. In 1947 L. Jellicoe became our first Nuffield representative and he was followed by Gerry Deftereos and D. Amos in 1949.

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Deftereos had a fine season in 1948 and took 30 inter-school wickets, averaging 8.9. Against Prince Edward, St. George's and Chaplin he took 7 wickets in each match, capturing 2 wickets with the first two balls he bowled against Prince Edward and St. Georges. He was well supported by Joe Partridge who was later selected for South Africa. Partridge took 4 for 42 against St. George's, 5 for 12 against Old Boys and 4 for 10 against Odzi.

In 1949 we played Plumtree for the first time since 1930. It was their first visit to Umtali and their side was a formidable one. Marshall Davies, the captain, played for Rhodesia while at school and the side also included Tony Pithey and Dave Napier who both did well for Rhodesia in later years. Plumtree elected to bat, but were soon in trouble due to the tight bowling of Deftereos and Drysdale. With the score at 56 for seven, Hyatt joined Pithey for a stand of 60 runs. Pithey was then bowled for a very polished 56 and the side was out for 120. Umtali had an even more disastrous start, being 3 for 6 runs. Then Gerry Deftereos staged a recovery, but wickets fell steadily and he had a succession of partners while he made 39. B. Palmer helped to take the score to 96 but two quick wickets fell and E. Sinclair joined Palmer at 97 for 9. To all but these two defeat was imminent. With great determination they put on 67 for the last wicket to win the game amid terrific excitement. Sinclair was bowled for 39, and Palmer was not out for 27.

In 1950 School began with a match against Town and were bowled out for 19. However, during the season they gained a memorable victory over Prince Edward. Batting first, the School were 62 for 9 wickets when N. Tapson and C. Friend came together and added 58 runs to take the total to 120. J. Drysdale then bowled magnificently to take 7 wickets for 5 runs, including 4 wickets in one over. Prince Edward were all out for 61. Drysdale had an excellent season and was selected to play for Rhodesia in the Nuffield Tournament.

E. Deftereos was selected for Rhodesia in the Nuffield Tournament in 1951 and 1952. In 1952 he scored two inter-school centuries. During 1952 we beat both Prince Edward and St. George's and, in 1953, inflicted a thrashing on Allan Wilson. Allan Wilson were dismissed for 10 and 19 in reply to Umtali's total of 157. During this season A. Pettifor performed outstandingly with the ball and he and I. Forrest made the Nuffield Trials. B. Bragge made the Trials in 1954 but generally this was a poor year. Due to the polio restrictions in Salisbury several matches were cancelled in 1955. Ian McCulloch, captaining the side for the third year, turned in some good bowling figures including 8 for 21 against Churchill.

In 1956 B. Bragge, E. Deane-Williams and Doug Watson made the Nuffield Trials, Watson being selected for the team. Both Watson and Deane-Williams were selected in 1957. 1957 was a fairly successful season, the highlights being two magnificent innings by Watson. He hit 94 against St. Georges and dominated a last wicket partnership of 54 with P. Hill which took Umtali to victory. Against Allan Wilson he made 95 not out and followed this up with bowling figures of 5 for 26 and 5 for 22 - one of the finest all-round performances in the School's history. Unfortunately, in the last game of the season Prince Edward bowled Umtali out for 11, the lowest score in the School's history.

1958 was a dismal year because the side lacked mature batsmen and accurate spinners. Hugh Stacey who made the Nuffield Trials in 1958 was selected as vice-captain of the Nuffield XI in 1959, K. Harris being named as non-travelling reserve for the same team. 1960 was a year of ups and downs but a memorable tour of the Mashonaland Country Districts and a good win over Prince Edward brightened it up

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considerably. C. Heymans who captained the team in 1960 and again in 1961 became the first Umtali boy to be selected as a captain of a Nuffield Trial Team when he was chosen to lead the Mashonaland/ Manicaland B side in 1961. P. Rennie, M. Burton, G. Hobbins and M. Greyvensteyn were also selected for the trials. Rennie and Burton experienced very successful years in 1962. They were both selected to tour England with the Rhodesian Fawns, Rennie as vice-captain, and both performed admirably. Burton headed the bowling with 57 wickets costing 7.9 runs each, while Rennie made 408 runs, including a century, averaging 36.8, and even managing to capture 11 wickets. Rennie made an excellent captain and he had a splendid season. Indeed his total of 534 runs surpassed even Doug. Watson's of 1957 and his average of 59.3 showed his consistency. During his career of over 50 matches for the First XI he made 1,404 runs, averaging just over 30, an excellent record. Burton capped a fine season by being selected for the Rhodesian Nuffield Schools and South African Schools — the only Umtali boy to ever achieve this honour.

1963 was probably the most successful year in the School's history. Including the very successful tour to the Country Districts they played 16 games and suffered defeat only at the hands of St. George's and this by the close margin of 16 runs. Graham Hobbins captained the team well and his demeanour and bearing on the field was perfect. He was chosen as vice-captain of the Rhodesian Nuffield team and P. Hadingham as wicket-keeper. G. Yeo who batted number 10 for the School topped the batting averages with an average of 108.5 and I quote from the magazine, "a great example of what guts, determination and concentration can achieve. " Yeo also took 59 wickets and he and I. Reich (61 wickets) formed an excellent combination. The success of 1963 was maintained admirably in 1964. Hobbins had a magnificent all-round season and was selected as the Rhodesian captain. He scored 562 runs (average 46.2) and took 42 wickets (average 9.47). He was well supported by F. Richmond and M. van Zyl in the batting and C Phillips made great strides as an off-spinner. Richmond and Phillips both had splendid seasons in 1965 and the First team on the whole had another good year. Richmond hit "321 runs (average 51.75) to break a School record. He also topped the bowling averages and with Phillips bore the brunt of the work. Other notable performances during the year were by G. Gold (9 wickets for 17 runs in 6 over’s against Peterhouse (a School bowling record) and W. Smart (6 catches in the Peterhouse match while fielding at gully). The highlight of the season was undoubtedly the memorable win against Mount Pleasant when, after being 9 wickets down for 12 runs, J. Caswell and Gold put on 69 for the last wicket and so enabled Umtali to win. Richmond was selected for the Rhodesian team and his 82 against Griqualand West was at that time the highest score by an Umtali boy in the Nuffield Tournament.

Between 1966 and 1968 the Schools cricket slumped badly and in 1967 only one game was won. The School went on another successful tour to the Mashonaland Country Districts in 1966. R. Ballance, the captain, played very well on tour and hit 355 runs (average 177.5). G. Havnar, who took 68 wickets during the year, broke I. Reich's record of 61. He was well supported by B. Watkins who took 58 wickets. Watkins also made 543 runs. Havnar and R. Barnes broke a School record when they made a first wicket partnership of 189 against Allan Wilson. Ballance, Havnar and T. Steyn, the wicket-keeper, were all selected for the Rhodesian Nuffield side and all performed extremely well. Steyn broke the record for the highest score by an Umtali boy in Nuffield Week when he made 89 against Western Province.

In 1968 the School toured Malawi and won all their games comfortably. They combined sight seeing with cricket and at the same time were excellent ambassadors

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for the School. After the tour the Headmaster received a letter from the Captain of the Blantyre Sports Club and I quote a paragraph from the letter "I must say it was a pleasure to have your team here in Malawi as their behaviour on and off the field of play was immaculate. It is only a pity that some of the local European schoolboys did not have the opportunity to see your team in action ..."The highlight of the cricket side of the tour was a whirlwind 153 not out (including 7 sixes and 17 fours) by N. Sparks. Sparks was selected for the Rhodesian Nuffield Trials but was unable to travel to Gwelo to play in them. R. Brown and B. Gunn, however, were able to travel and Brown was selected as a non-travelling reserve for the final team.

From an objective point of view our record has been steady but never exciting. We have never been a real cricket school for we seem to lack a certain maturity that stems from the confidence of successful years. Every year we find the whole team relying on one or two individuals and when these individuals fail the side fails. Our best years were probably between 1963 and 1965, when under the able leadership of Graham Hobbins (1963-64) and Frank Richmond (1965) the whole side pulled their weight and so moulded themselves into a powerful unit. These were Mr. M. B. E. Whiley's last years as the First XI coach before he was transferred to Lord Malvern. He had coached the team since 1957, become a Nuffield Selector in 1960 and had managed the 1962 and 1966 Rhodesian Schools' side. In addition he had travelled with Fawns teams to Johannesburg and had organised three tours for the School XI.

The school has been very fortunate in its coaches and its many friends who have helped its cricket to progress during the years. In the late 1920's Mr. Crake, Mr. Ely, Mr. Gibbons, Mr. Carey, Mr. Myburgh, Mr. Moll and others helped with the coaching and brought teams to the School. Colonel Pemberton and Mr. H. F. Edmonds coached the team during this period. Mr. Edmonds took a very close interest in the School's cricket during his long stay. Mr. H. J. Theron, Mr. K. M. Fleming and Mr. E. C. W. Silcock were other notable coaches before Mr Whiley took over. Mr. Fleming had a fantastic coaching reputation at Plumtree and during the late 1940's and early 1950's this school had five South African Schools’ players and numerous Nuffield representatives. All of these players came under Mr. Fleming and it is only a pity that he coached our team for such a short period.

The School's cricket is now in the hands of Mr. A. M. Griffiths, an Old Boy of the School. Mr. Griffiths has already organised the very successful tour to Malawi and has set the Pedepus Cricket Club firmly on its feet.

End of Page 122

CAPTAINS OF CRICKET

1923 T. Gilbert 1947 R. Lines

1924 T. Gilbert 1948 N. Myers

1925 J. Ward 1949 N. Myers

1926 J. Ward 1950 G. Deftereos

1927 L. Orpen 1951 E. Deftereos

1928 L. Orpen 1952 E. Deftereos

1929 R. Edwards 1953 I. McCul.och

1930 R. Michell 1954 I. McCulloch

1931 R. Michell 1955 I. McCulloch

1932 C. Brown 1956 B. Bragge

1933 C. Brown 1957 E. Deane-Williams

1934 C. Brown 1958 K. Harris

1935 R. Lenton 1959 K. Harris

1936 W. James 1960 C. Heymans

1937 M. Jansen 1961 C. Heymans

1938 D. Baker 1962 P. Rennie

1939 J. Godfrey 1963 G. Hobbins

1940 J. Godfrey 1964 G. Hobbins

1941 P. Uren: P. Chevallier 1965 F. Richmond

1942 J. Clarke 1966 R. Ballance

1943 G. Browne 1967 R. Ballance

1944 F. Hill 1968 N. Sparks

1945 C. Graham 1969 R. Brown

1946 C. Graham. L. Jellicoe

FIRST XI CENTURIES

1929: R. Taylor 135 not out versus Old Boys.

1930: R. Michell 163 not out versus Town.

M. Holman 102 not out versus Mr. Gale's XI.
R. Taylor 102 versus Old Boys

1931: R. Michell 129 not out versus Crusaders

1947: N. Tapson 107 not out versus St. Georges.

1948: N. Myers 102 not out versus Old Crocks

1952: E. Deftereos 117 versus St. Georges

E. Deftereos 100 versus St. Georges

I. McCulloch 109 versus Prince Edward

I. Forrest 106 not out versus St. Georges

1955: J. de Meyer 103 versus Allan Wilson

1956: B. Bragge 154 versus Casuals

D. Watson 106 not out versus Allan Wilson

1962: P. Rennie 108 not out versus Churchill

1964: M. van Zyl 142 versus Mount Pleasant

G. Hobbins 119 versus Northlea

F.Richmond 109 versus Mount Pleasant

1964: G. Hobbins 100 versus Peterhouse

1965: F. Richmond 137 not out versus Ellis Robins

R. Barnes 102 not out versus Allan Wilson

1966: R. Balance 117 versus Shamva

R. Ballance 100 not out versus Karoi

R. Barnes 100 not out versus Allan Wilson


End of Page 123

1968 N. Sparks 153 not out versus Blantyre Sports Club II

D. Weatherdon 103 not out versus Clapham-Hillview

D. Weatherdon 115 not out versus Prince Edward

RUGBY

Rugby began in 1919, but there were not enough boys participating in the game to be able to arrange matches. Therefore, Association Football became more popular and it was not until 1922-23 that rugby was set firmly on its feet. This was mainly due to the efforts of the Headmaster, Mr. Livingston. Lack of opposition was overcome by his invitation to past pupils to come and learn the game by practising with the school. This, perhaps, was the beginnings of the Old Borderers' Rugby Club, but it was not until 1926 that the club entered in the local league.

The first report on School rugby is contained in the first volume of "The Borderer" and covers the season 1922-23. Special mention is made of T. Klasen, MacLean and T. Viljoen as showing promise among the backs, and P. Coleman and T. Gilbert among the forwards. "We were delighted that Salisbury High School could send a XV down to p'ay, though we did not bargain for so heavy a defeat as we sustained 37 points to nil. This was our first visit from an outside team and we hope many more will follow." In 1924 the XV appears to have made its first visit to play the Boys' High School in Salisbury (now, of course, known as Prince Edward). The report states: "This last match was in the Honey Cup Competition, and the way in which we held our own for the major part of the game was well commented on by those present. R. Ackermann and W. Hoar played particularly well in this match." There is no mention of the score, and the report itself does not give the impression of a high score. Yet Old Borderers who played in the first match against Prince Edward in Salisbury say that Umtali were trounced to the tune of 53-0.

These early teams played against local teams, namely "The Manicas ", "The Umtali Town" and "The Railways". The School front row in the scrums complained bitterly of what they termed an unfair practice indulged in by their opposite numbers. These gentlemen never shaved on the day of the match, consequently the School front row were good examples of the old advertisement about "stubble trouble". As far as is known T. Viljoen was the first schoolboy to be awarded his colours and Mr. H. F. Edmonds was the first coach and, with Mr. Livingston, was prime mover for the start of rugby.

The report of the 1925 season "welcomed Prince Edward on their second visit to Umtali," and goes on "we again suffered defeat in our principal match". The 1925 side was captained by T. Klasen with J. Ward as vice-captain. The team played in the Manica Board's Junior League and succeeded in winning all matches except one. Robbie Ackerman was credited with being the most improved player and was selected to play for the Mashonaland Juniors against Matabeleland. 1926 was evidently a poor year, for the "Borderer complains of "the lack of a sufficient number of big boys" and also "the tackling with few exceptions was weak, rather than go low the players preferred to clasp an opponent lovingly around the neck!"

The 1927 season was reported as "successful but marred by injuries". The side was coached by Mr. Ashley, an ex-Springbok! 1928: " Our chief regret is that we did no better against Salisbury than add to our reputation as gallant losers. " 1929 contains a full report of the Prince Edward game which was lost 3-22. P. Wiese scored Umtali's only points with a magnificent dodging run. 1930 claimed that the standard of rugby had dropped somewhat and contains a dig at the Headmaster. "We were so

End of Page 124

enthusiastic that we even vied with each other in kicking the rugby ball to school every morning but this practice was stopped and our rugger degenerated in consequence."

In 1931 the team "was much better than we expected. Owing to a light pack we were unable to hold our own against Prince Edward. " Evidently training was taken seriously for W. Myburgh and E. Livingstone are thanked for coming to the hostel at 6 a.m. every day to coach the team. This year brought the first games against St. George's College. The first match was drawn (9-9), but Umtali won the return game (11-0), ta register their first inter-school victory. R, Michell, the captain, was a tower of strength in the two matches against St. George's. His brilliant tactical play accounted for all eleven points in the second game. The points were made up of two excellent tries, a conversion and a glorious drop goal from the half-way line. In the first game against St. George's, Michell scored a brilliant individual try and against Prince Edward is complimented in the "Borderer" as being "responsible for the team not losing heart. " E. Levy, P. Joubert and F. Holman also had good seasons and the "Borderer" mentions the latter as being "resourceful and at times brilliant

Levy returned the following year to lead the School in its most successful season so far. He led the team by example and is mentioned as having "carried the team on his shoulders right through the season. " His vice-captain, Edwards, was a very clever player and had all the attributes of a good fly-half. C. Brown, J. Speares, H. Olivier and R. Mackintosh also had good seasons and the school drew with Prince Edward in the first game and narrowly lost in the second, twice beat St. George's and won the Second League Championship of Umtali.

1933 did not maintain this high standard and the three inter- school games were lost.

1934 was a successful season and it marked the appearance of a coach who was well known to many Old Borderers. H. J. Theron (Bill to the staff and Oom Thys to the boys) came to relieve for a term and was to return permanently in 1936. This season also brought Selborne, the first touring side to visit Umtali. Selborne won the match but the score is not given. The 1935 side was unbeaten in the local league, but lost to Prince Edward and the touring St. John's Side
from Johannesburg. The under 16 team notched the School's first victory over Prince Edward by 9 points to 3.

The year 1936 marks the start of H. J. Theron's era, which was to cover the next 11 years up to 1947. Besides running the school rugby, Bill also coached the cricket XI and wielded the starter's pistol at the school sports. A product of Rhodes University College, where he played fullback, he was accorded sincere affection and respect by those who learned their rugby from him. Indeed, Old Borderers of these years still talk of his prodigious kicking ability and his whippy coaching stick was to galvanise many a lazy forward to greater efforts! In this year Jimmy Higham, at scrum-half, became Umtali's first representative in the Rhodesian Schools XV.

One of the greatest drawbacks to producing good inter-school teams in these years was the small number of boys in the school. Indeed, this was to be the bugbear of Umtali rugby for many years. It was only after the school had been split and the Boys' High School had reached the 500 mark that we began to produce teams that could consistently hold their own with other schools. The war years were hard on Umtali; the withdrawal of team concessions on the railways put an end to inter-school games from 1942 to 1944. Consequently, the 1945 and 1946 teams were

End of Page 125

strangers to inter-school rugby and were over-whelmed. This constant travelling has played an important part in all sport in Umtali. Expense has limited the numbers of teams travelling, and consequently many boys never receive the opportunity of representing the school in an inter-school game.

With the increased rugby activities in the immediate post war years, a new coach arrived on the scene. This was Mr. G. E. McGrath, who had represented the University of Wales and Durham County and had played with or against many of the home internationals in the half dozen years preceding the war. Like H. J. Theron he was to shape the school rugby for ten years from 1948 to 1957. Himself a typical example of the bright English three-quarter play, he was an exponent of open rugby and was to develop many fine three-quarters. Indeed, it can be said that he put Umtali on the road to being the force it is today in school rugby. In 1949 he coached the XV which registered our first wins over Prince Edward and Plumtree. In 1950 the first post-war Rhodesian Schools side went on tour to the Union and Umtali was represented by G. Deftereos, D. Kluckow and W. Raynor. Incidentally this side was captained by Peter Klemp and included Peter Kolbe who were both later members of the staff for a while.

In 1951 the School drew with the touring St. Andrew's side from Bloemfontein, who were making their second visit to Umtali. (The first visit was in 1937 when they beat the School 10-5). However, we lost against the other schools with the exception of Allan Wilson, who were playing their first fixtures against Umtali. In 1952 Umtali was represented in the Rhodesian Schools side by E. Deftereos, M. Mannion and I.Forrest. I. Forrest was again selected in 1953 with W. van der Merwe.

The 1954 team, following in the footsteps of the 1932 side, became the second School XV to win more than half the inter-school games. (Played 10, won 5, lost 4, drew 1). This was improved by the 1955 team which won 7 and lost 5. The improvement was continued in 1956 with 9 won and 3 lost. This was the first Umtali XV to beat a touring side. In a magnificent game they beat Maritzburg College 8-6, V. Steyn scoring the winning points with a magnificent kick from the touchline. To add to their laurels this was the first defeat that Maritzburg had suffered in three seasons. This year brought the first of the Leopard teams (Mashonaland-Manicaland Schools Team) and Umtali were well represented by T. Holloway (vice-captain), V. Steyn, B. van der Linde, B. King, J. Anderson, E. Wessels and P. le Grange.

At this stage School rugby was on the crest of the wave but, as often happens, the wave broke and we were the ones to get rolled under. The 1957 side lost all inter-school games and, even more humiliating; they were vanquished by the staff! This poor season was followed in 1958 by a season as good as that of 1956. Of 11 games played the XV won 7, lost 2 and drew 1. This side registered our second win over Prince Edward and the second win against touring sides by beating Graeme College 8-3. They, too, were strongly represented in the Leopards XV with A. Myburgh (captain), P. Burford, D. Chalmers, M. Higgins, P. Hill, B. Panas and A. Sutcliffe.

In 1959 the School sent a touring side to the Union for the first time. The team toured East London and the Transkei, winning 2 and losing 2. During the corresponding season the team won eight matches, including a fine win over Michaelhouse, and lost four. The season was rounded off by five Umtali players being selected for the Leopards XV to play the Sables (Matabeleland-Midlands XV). M. Greyvensteyn was unable to travel because of injury but V. Compton (vice-captain), D. Chalmers, J. Mussett and M. Higgins were in the side which won 18-11

End of Page 126

The 1960 season began with a tour to the Northern Transvaal but, by the end of the third game, the hard fields and robust rugby had reduced Umtali to 13 fit players and the fourth game had to be cancelled. 1960 was a season of mixed fortunes due to the lack of speed in the three-quarters and the fact that the forwards tended to play as individuals. However, Greyvensteyn was outstanding despite being heavily marked. Umtali had a series of ups and downs in 1961 and in 1962 went on tour again. They played 6 games on a tour of the Johannesburg area and, against a Wanderers Under 20 XV, they played under floodlights for the first time. The team only won 2 games on tour but they experienced a very successful season in Rhodesia. Churchill was the only school to beat them. In the match against Ellis Robins which the School won 59-3 R. Coltman scored 7 tries.

1963 was a very successful season, the School only losing two matches out of the 12 inter-school fixtures. Coltman, at centre, and A. Marner, the speedy left wing, formed an excellent combination and, between them, they scored 18 tries.

In 1964 the School came through the season unbeaten by any Rhodesian school, but lost to Chaplin in a post season game played at Triangle. G. Hobbins led the team by example and excelled in the line-outs. He was chosen as the captain of the Rhodesian Schools team which travelled to East London for the Danie Craven Week. Three other Umtali boys were also chosen for the side; M. van Zyl, P. Stead and G. Yeo.

1965 began with a tour to Natal and, although only one game was won out of four, the other three were all very closely contested. The team only lost one game against a Rhodesian school and beat Churchill in the Salisbury School's only defeat of the season. Springbok trialist Eden Moorcroft moulded the forwards into a very useful force iin which N. Kriel was outstanding.

1966 was one of the best seasons in the history of the School, and the side's only defeat was at the hands of St. George's who won with a dramatic last minute kick from the corner flag. However, in the last match of the season, the School defeated St. George's comfortably. But the highlight of the season was the magnificent 30-21 victory over Selborne College. It was schoolboy rugby at its best and matched the 1956 game against Maritzburg College. It is also interesting to note that K. Nicolson played in place of N. Kriel (away at Craven Week) and that Nicolson's father had played for Umtali against the first Selborne team to tour Rhodesia in 1934. Kriel, the season's captain, was selected as vice-captain of the Rhodesia Schools’ team and was picked out as one of the best players of the Craven Week. T. Steyn also had a fine season and joined Greyvensteyn, Marner and Van Zyl in having played 50 or more games for the School 1st XV. But, on the whole, it was mainly fine teamwork that gained the good results.

1967 was a poor season but a successful tour was made to Port Elizabeth. A fine win over Prince Edward in the last game ended the season on a high note.

1968 was an excellent season and highlights were fine wins over Churchill and Prince Edward. The Churchill game was the main curtain raiser to the British Lions - Rhodesia match.
After the game Vivien Jenkins and Cliff Morgan, both ex-British lions' players, remarked about the high standard of the game and the wonderful tackling by the two sides. K. Nicolson led the team by example and was deservedly selected as captain of the Rhodesian Craven Week side. H. Watson was also in the team.

End of Page 127

Finally, what of the future of rugby? We can honestly say that school rugby is going from strength to strength. Our teams are earning the reputation of playing clean, open rugby. The attendance at school games increases every year and we are proud that we can provide a crowd-pleasing display. It is only a pity that we do not hear more of our Old Boys and their successes in rugby. Too many of the boys cannot be bothered spending hours training and so many talented rugby players are not heard of again in the rugby world.

However, it is fitting that we should record here the names of those old Borderers who have represented Southern Rhodesia and latterly Rhodesia. E. C. (Toosie) Meikle, 1928; Billy Clarke, 1946; Boet Small, 1947; Billy Hunt, 1951-58;; Grenville Parker, 1956; Clive du Bruyn, 1958-59; Roger Lines, 1959; Willie van der Merwe, 1959-66; Peter Stead has represented Eastern Province since 1966.

End of Page 128

CAPTAINS OF RUGBY

1923 T. Gilbert: P. Coleman 1946 H. Ness
1924 T. Klasen 1947 M. Grevensteyn
1925 T. Klasen 1948 M. Grevensteyn
1926 T. Klasen & J. Ward 1949 W. Hunt
1927 L. Orpen 1950 G. Deftereos
1928 L. Orpen 1951 E. Deftereos
1929 R. Edwards 1952 K. Davies
1930 J. Tapson 1953 A. Paauw
1931 R. Michell 1954 D. van Zyl
1932 E. Levy 1955 T. Holloway
1933 C. Brown 1956 T. Holloway
1934 C. Brown 1957 E. Wessels
1935 J. Parks 1958 A. Myburgh
1936 M. Jansen 1959 K. Harris
1937 J. Higham 1960 M. Greyvensteyn
1938 E. McLean 1961 M. Greyvensteyn
1939 F. Edwards 1962 T. Atkins
1940 J. Godfrey 1963 R. Coltman
1941 P. Uren 1964 G. Hobbins
1942 J. Clarke 1965 T. Steyn
1943 B. Hacking 1966 N. Kriel
1944 F. Hill 1967 W. Torrie
1945 C. Graham 1968 K. Nicolson

Enf of Page 129

Photo 130
The First XV 1932
Back Row: McKenzie - Burton - Brent - MacIntosh - Gray - Scott - H. Levy - Cronwright
Middle Row: B.B. Hill Esq., Headmaster - Oliver - Edwards - E. Levy (Capt.) - Brown – Speares - J. Mather Esq.
In Front: Joubert – Crossley



Photo 131
The First XV 1966
Back Row: Torrie - Blaauw - Dold - Glendinning - Bredenkamp - Reyers - Barnes
Seated: Steyn - Kriel (Capt) - B. van Blomestein Esq. (Coach) - Moore (Vice Capt.) Donaldson - Watkins
In Front: Sparks – Smith


Photo 132
The First XI 1948
Back Row: Palmer - Spain - Hunt - Parham - Amos - Drysdale- Bray
Front Row: Defeteros - Mr. A.D. Gledhill (Headmaster) - N. Myers (Capt.)
Mr. K.M. Fleming (Coach) Tapson


Photo 133
The First XI 1962
Back Row: Baker (Scorer) Barnes - Rudolph - Reich - Van Zyl - Delahunt - Watson
Sitting: Hadingham - Von Lilllenfield - P. Rennie (Capt.) Mr. M.B.E Whiley (Coach)
Burton (Vice Capt.) - Hobbins - Wood

OTHER SPORTS

The School has also held its own in numerous other sports.

Basketball was started in 1962. A pupil, F. Meglic, kindly made the back boards and rings and the first court was a humble one. In 1965 a cement court was built and in the same year the team entered the Major Leyland Shield (an Inter-Rhodesian School Competition). Basketball expanded greatly in 1966 with First and Second teams playing in the League. B. Glendining became the first recipient of basketball colours and was selected for the Rhodesian Schools team. Christo Polenakis (an Old Boy) presented a cup for the most improved player of the year and this was awarded to M. Clyde-Wiggins. The following year Clyde-Wiggins was selected for the Rhodesian Schools side and in 1968 Umtali was runner-up in the Major Leyland competition.

Tennis has been played since the earliest years but the game suffered because the boys have always preferred to take cricket or athletics as their main summer game and play tennis as a social game. In 1934 a team of seven boys travelled to "Salisbury to play schools there but during the next twenty years the interest in the game was mainly on the part of the girls. Incidentally at the Tournament in 1934 the outstanding player was D. Crossley of Milton who was formerly of the Umtali High School. However, in the last few years many tournaments have been played and consequently the standard of tennis has risen.

Hockey, like tennis, has been neglected by the boys during the School's history. Up to the separation of the School in 1954 it was played only by the girls (the occasional game was played against the girls before 1954 but this was usually a very light hearted affair) but in 1957 a hockey group and a hockey field was established. In 1958 the first Inter-School games were played and in 1960 I. Smart, A. Isherwood and F. Meglic were selected for the Rhodesian Schools' touring team. The following year Meglic was selected as captain of the Rhodesian Schools' touring side. In 1965 W. Smart went to the Rhodesian Schools Trials as a member of the Mashonaland "A" team and in 1967 R. Harvey was selected for the Manicaland Senior side which played in the Inter-Provincial Tournament. 1967 was a very successful year; the First team won 5 out of 6 games and the Second team was unbeaten.

The school went on tour to Natal in 1968 and were well-prepared for the stiff programme. Prior to the tour they received coaching from the German international Horst Wein, and during the season they played excellent hockey. On tour they won 4 out of 8 matches and during the corresponding season they won seven out of 11. Six players were selected for the senior Manicaland side at the Inter-provincial tournament in Bulawayo — D. Weatherdon, M. Houston, P. Evershed, N. Walker, R. Brown and B. Craig. Houston and Evershed also represented a Manicaland Invitation side against the touring Springboks and these two with Craig were selected for the Mashonaland 'B' team in the Rhodesian Schools Trials.

In April, 1926, the first swimming gala was held. According to the "Borderer" the gala was kept private as it was our first attempt. The magazine goes on to say: "It was a great success and there were some great races." The gala was held at the Municipal baths and all consequent galas were held in this bath until the School acquired its own swimming pool in 1956. The new bath was opened by Mr. B. B. Hill and Hill House dominated the first gala. Indeed, this House won every gala until 1968, when Livingston House became the new champions.

End of Page 134

In 1958, for the first time, Umtali entered a full School team in the Inter-Schools gala and out of 9 schools competing they came fourth. R. Austin gained the only first place. In 1961 N. Gardiner won the Open diving at the Inter-School Championships and the following year M. Taylor set an Inter-School record for the Open 100 yards backstroke (62.8sec). Taylor was then selected to represent Rhodesia in the Currie Cup events. In 1963 Taylor broke the Federal backstroke records at the Championships in Mufulira and swam for Rhodesia in the South African Championships at Pretoria, where he came fourth in the 220 yards Men's backstroke. In the same year he broke the Federal All-Comers record for the 110 yards backstroke with a time of 69.8sec. Also competing at Mufulira in 1963 was C. Talbert who won the Junior diving and was third in the Senior diving.

Both in 1963 and 1964 J. Jordan did very well in the freestyle at the Inter-Schools gala and he also gained National honours.

In 1965 the Inter-School swimming gala took on a "new look" and was run purely on a relay basis thus excluding the individual events. Unfortunately Umtali has rarely shone in the new system and since 1965 there have been few swimmers of a high standard at the school.

Water polo, badminton, cross country, squash, soccer, boxing, golf and gymnastics have been encouraged during the School's history.

We have been competing in the Inter-Schools cross country meetings held at Peterhouse since 1959, an event we won in 1959, 1960 and 1962.

The gymnastic team has done well in more recent years and many displayshave been given.

Two new squash courts have been built recently and this sport is rising in popularity with both the boys and the staff.

End of Article

Acknowledgements
The late Jim Agnew for making a "hard copy" of the magazine available to ORAFs
Paul Norris for the ISP sponsorship.
Paul Mroz for the image hosting sponsorship.
Thanks to Robb Ellis for his support and assistance.

A very big thank you to all the members of the Research team that produced this wonderful memory of the Umtali Schools.

Hope you enjoyed the walk down memory lane?

Eddy Norris
September 2010

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